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47 terms

AP Psychology: Social Psychology

Myers 2011 Ch 14
STUDY
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social psychology
scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory
theory that we credit either the situation or the person's disposition for his/her behavior
fundamental attribution error
tendency to assume disposition has a greater impact on behavior than the situation (underestimating the situation and overestimating disposition)
attitude
feelings that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events
central route persuasion
attitude change path based on logic, such as arguments
peripheral route persuasion
attitude change path based on incidental cues, such as attractiveness
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
tendency for people to comply with successively larger requests after a small initial request
role
set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how one should behave
cognitive dissonance theory
theory that we act to reduce discrepancy between actions and thoughts/beliefs
conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence
influence resulting from a desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
informational social influence
influence resulting from willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Stanley Milgram
obedience experimenter
social facilitation
tendency to perform well-learned tasks better in presence of others
social loafing
tendency to exert less effort when pooling efforts of multiple people than when individually accountable ex. LeBron
deindividuation
loss of self-awareness and -restraint
group polarization
augmentation of group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within group ex. Jonestown final day
groupthink
thinking that overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives due to desire for harmony
culture
enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions of a group
norm
understood rule for accepted behavior
prejudice
unjustifiable attitude toward a group; pre-judging
stereotype
generalized belief about a group of people
discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group of people
ingroup
"us"
outgroup
"them"
ingroup bias
tendency to favor one's own group
scapegoat theory
theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
other-race effect
tendency to recall faces within own race better; cross-race effect/own-race bias
just-world phenomenon
tendency to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-aggression principle
principle that frustration generates anger and aggression
mere exposure effect
phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
passionate love
aroused state of intense positive absorption in another
companionate love
deep affectionate attachment felt for people in our lives
equity
condition in which people receive from a relationship what they put in to to
self-disclosure
revealing of intimate aspects of oneself to others
altruism
unselfish regard for welfare of others
bystander effect
tendency less aid to be offered in presence of multiple bystanders
social exchange theory
theory that social behavior is exchange process, aiming to maximize benefits and minimize costs
reciprocity norm
expectation that people help those who have helped them
social-responsibility norm
expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
conflict
perceived incompatibility of actions, goals or ideas
social trap
situation in which conflicting parties become mutually destructive (due to pursuit of self-interest)
mirror-image perceptions
mutual views often held by conflicting people, like when both sides see their own side as ethical and peaceful
self-fulfilling prophecy
belief that leads to its own fulfillment
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
GRIT
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction; strategy to decrease international tensions