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112 terms

Anatomy Urinary System

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What is regulated by the kidneys
water content of the blood
blood pH level
Blood ion concentration
The medial surface of each kidney has a notch called the
hilum
At the beginning of the "plumbing system" of the urinary system, urine leaving the renal papilla is collected in the cup like structures called
Calyces
The functional unit of the kidney is
nephron
what is a component of the renal corpuscle
glomerlus
bowman's capsule
which of the following structures secretes renin when blood pressure in the afferent arteriole drops
juxtaglomelular apparatus
substances pass from the glomeruls and into the bowman's capsule by
filtration
the juxtaglomelular cells reside in the
afferent arteriole
What are the processes of urine formation
filtration
reabsorption
secretion
The movement of water and solute from the plasma in the glomerlus across the glomerular capsular membrane and into the capsular space of the Bowman's capsule is termed
filtration
the movement of molecules out of the peritubular blood and into the tubule for excretion is
secretion
under normal conditions most water, electrolytes and nutrients are reabsorbed in the
proximal convoluted tubule
What is considered a countercurrent structure
Loop of Henle
Water loss from the blood is reduced by
ADH, aldosterone
Dysuria is a term describing
painful urination
Fluid exiting the loop of Henle becomes less concentrated with
NA and CI ions
In the renal tubule, NA is reabsorbed via
active transport
____ is a condition characterized by excessive levels of uric acid in the blood
Gout
Urine backs up into the kidneys causing swelling of the renal pelvis and calyces
Hydronephrosis
Kidney stones
Renal calculi
Final stage of chronic renal failure
uremia
involuntary retention of urine with subsequent distention of the bladder
neurogenic bladder
inflammation of the bladder
crystitis
inflammation of the renal pelvis and connective tissues of the kidney
pyelonephritis
An abrupt reduction in kidney function characterized by oliguria and a sharp rise in nitrogenous compounds in the blood
acute renal failure
progressive condition resulting from gradual loss of nephrons
chronic renal failure
Intense kidney pain caused by destruction of the ureters by large kidney stones
renal colic
most common form of kidney disease cased by a delayed immune response to streptococcal infection
acute glomerulonephritis
albumin in the urine
proteinuria
inflammation of the urethra that commonly results from bacterial infection
urethrits
Capillary network in renal corpuscles
glomerules
movement of molecule back into the blood
reabsorption
tube from kidney to bladder
ureter
mouth of nephron
bowman's capsule
outer region of kidney
renal cortex
inner region of kidney
renal medulla
opening from bladder to exterior
urethra
osmotic concentration of a solution
osmuality
functional unit of kidney
nephron
amount of substance removed from blood by kidneys per minute
cieracne
Which process is used by the artificial kidney to remove waster materials from the blood
dialysis
Failure of the kidneys to remove wastes from the blood will result in what
uremia
Hydrogen ions are transferred from blood into the urine during which process
secretion
what condition would be considered normal in an infant under 2 years of age
incontinence
What steps involved in urine formation allow the body to retain most body nutrients
reabsorption
Voluntary control of micturition is achieved by the action of which of the following
external urethral sphincter
what is the structure that carries urine from the kidneys to the bladder called
ureter
What are the capillary loops contained within Bowman's capsule called
glomeruli
The triangular division of the medulla of the kidney are known as
pyramids
The trigone is located in the
bladder
Involuntary voiding
incontinence
passes through prostate gland
urethra
absence of urine
anuria
urination
micturition
blood in urine
hematuria
inflammation of the kidney
nephritis
large amount of protein in urine
proteinuria
large amount of urine
polyuria
folds that line the bladder
rugae
scanty amount of urine
oliguria
Test for renal dysfunction
BUN
The majority of total body water is found in
intracellular fluid
The most abundant intracellular cation is
K
The most abundant extracellular cation is
Na
The most abundant anion in extracellular fluids is
Cl
Fluid intake usually equals
fluid output
The two factors that determine urine volume are
the glomerules filtration rate and the rate of water reabsorption by the renal tubules
What is an example of obligatory fluid output
water vapor in expired air
water diffusion through the skin
Blood hydrostatic pressure
Tends to force fluid out of the capillaries and into interstitial fluid
What are the symptoms of dehydration
dim vision
cessation in urine formation
crackled skin
What large molecules are retained by the selectively permeable cell membrane
proteins
detect decreased pressure of blood when dehydration occurs
osmoreceptors
fluid volume excess
hypervolemia
fluid located within cells
intracellular
excessive loss of fluid from the body
dehydration
low serum potassium
hyopkalemia
water found outside of cells
extracellular
swelling
edema
MEq
Millequoteint
fluid that surrounds the cells
interstitial
chloride deficiency
hypochloremia
administration of fluids by injection
parenteral
What is NOT a positively charged ion
chloride
what is NOT a negatively charged ion
sodium
the smallest amount of water comes from
water from catabolism
the greatest amount of water lost from the body is from the
kidneys
Excessive water loss and fluid imbalance can result from what
diarrhea
vomiting
sever burns
What factor is primarily responsible for moving water from interstitial fluid into blood
protein concentration of blood plasma
If blood sodium concentration decreases, what does blood volume do
decrease
what is true of body water
it is obtained from the liquids we drink
it is obtained from the foods we eat
it is formed by the catabolism of food
Edema may result from
retention of electrolytes
The most abundant and important positive plasma ion is
sodium
what is true when extracellular volume decreases
aldosterone secretion increases
Kidney tubule reabsorption of sodium increases
urine volume decreases
As pH goes down
a solution becomes more acidic
The most acidic body substance is
gastric juice
What is an acid forming food
meat
what are base forming foods
fruits and vegetables
an acid forming element is
sulfur
acidic ketone bodies are associated with cellular metabolism of
fats
potassium salts of hemoglobin inside the red blood cell primarily buffer
carbonic acid
a serious complication of vomiting is
metabolic alkalosis
With each expiration which substance leaves the body
Co2 and H20
The kidney tubules secrete hydrogen ions in exchange of
Na
Acidosis causes
hyperventilation
A decrease in blood pH accelerates tubules excretion of
hydrogen and ammonia
result of untreated diabetes
uncompensated metabolic acidosis
sodium lactate
treatment for metabolic respiratory acidosis
bicarbonate deficit
metabolic acidosis
bicarbonate excess
metabolic alkalosis
rapid breathing
hyperventilation
carbonic acid excess
respiratory acidosis
carbonic acid deficit
respiratory alkalosis