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Anchoring the plants, absorbing minerals and water, often storing organic nutrients; underground
main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants; consists of a flattened blade and a stalk, the petiole, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem
A single layer of closely packed cells that covers the entire pland and protects it; non-woody- epidermis; woody- periderm
carries out long-distance transport of materials between roots and shoots; xylem-transports water; pholem- transports nutrients
includes cells specialized for storage, photosynthesis, and support; doesn't protect or transport; sandwiched between upper and lower epidermis
A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type
A flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the pant without restraining growth
A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possesssing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity
adds thickness to woody plants (secondary growth); vascular cambium and cork cambium
adds layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem (secondary growth)
Primary Growth- roots
produces epidermis, ground tissue, and vasclar tissue; the ground tissue fills cortex and region between vascular cylinder; innermast layer of cortex-endodermis
Primary Growth- shoots
dome shape mass dividing cells at the tip of the terminal bud; gives rise to repetition of internides and leaf-bearing nodes
allows CO2 exchange between the air and the photosynthetic cells in a leaf; interrupts the epidermis
dominant generation for plants; the multicellular diploid that results from the union of gametes
pollen grains; haploid gametes once unted with embyro sac goes into the sporophyte stage
Lack one or more of sepals, petals, stamen, carpels; staminate-incomplete flowers that only have a functional stamen; Caprellate- incomplete flowers with only a functional carpel
Pollination suceeds a pollen grain produces a pollen tube that grows down into the ovary and discharges sperm near the embryo sac; develops from microspores in the sporangia of the anthers
Ovary, the product of fertilization in an angiosperm; protects the enclosed seed and aids in tseed dispersal by wind or animals
a pollen tube discharges two sperm into the embryo sac one fertilizes the egg and the other combines with the polar nuclei making food storing endosperm
separation of a parent plant into part that develop into whole plants; very common in asexual plants
A growth response that results in the curvature of whole plant organs toward or awat from stimuli owing to differential rates of cell elongation
Growth of a plant shoot toward or away from light; results from Auxin; doesn't grow in sun
enhances apical dominance, forms aventatious roots, stem elongation, 1st hormone, human-made, kills weeds; found in embyro of seed, meristems of apical buds, and young leaves
Stimulates cytokinesis and cell division, works with Auxin to divide cells, works against Auxin in apical dominance; found in synthesized roots and transported to other organs
induces bolting, rapid growth of flower stalk, works with Auxin to promote cell growth; found in meristems of apical buds and roots, young leaves and embryo
inhibits growth, enables plants to withstand drought (closes stomata), promotes seed dormancy; found in leaves, stems, roots, and green fruit
ges form, promotes fruit ripening, positive feedback-(one bad apple spoils the bunch); found in tissues of ripening fruit, nodes of stems, aging leaves and flowers
A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persists evenn in the absence of external cues.
one embryo, scattered vascular bundles of stem, parallel leaf veneration, floral parts usually in 3s, fibrous roots, one opening pollen
Two embryos, Vascular bundles of stem in a ring, Net-like leaf veneration, floral parts in 4s or 5s, Taproots, Three openings pollen
moves from soil through roots because it goes from high water potential to low to help it reach an equilibrium
A tiny extension of a roott epidermal cell, growing just behind the rott tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals
roots and fungi form- symbiotic consisting of plant roots united with fungal hyphae; increased surface area more absorption
the reason some apoplastics must turn nto sympastic because of the waxy strip the minerals can't get around
the evaporation of water from leaves and other aerial parts of the plant; evaporation causes this
transpiration is very low, root cells continue pumping mineral ions in to the xylem of the vascular cylinder, lowering the water potential; pressure goes up water pressure goes up stem into leaves
Transpiration-Cohesion Adhesionn Mechanism
Water pulled up by negative pressure in xylem- transpiration provides the pull, cohesion by hydrogen bonding transmits the upward from the xylem to the roots; the movement of sylem sap against gravity
water exits throught he stomata after it diffues down its gradient; transpiration produces negative pressure which exerts a pulling force on water in the xylem, pulling water into the leaf
Sucrose into phloem
Proton pump and co-transport and H+ enable the cells to accumulate sucrose; H+ and sucrose help each other get into the cell
increased by pressure potential and decreased by addition of solutes which lowers solute potential
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