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91 terms

AP BIO CH 35-38

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Root System
Anchoring the plants, absorbing minerals and water, often storing organic nutrients; underground
Shoot System
Above ground, Stems,leaves-most photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants
Stems
nodes, internodes, axillary bud, terminal bud
Leaves
main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants; consists of a flattened blade and a stalk, the petiole, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem
Nodes
the points at which leaves are attached
Internodes
The stem segments between nodes
Axillary bud
a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot or branch
Terminal bud
located near the shoot tip and cases elongation of a young shoot
Dermal tissue
A single layer of closely packed cells that covers the entire pland and protects it; non-woody- epidermis; woody- periderm
Vascular Tissue
carries out long-distance transport of materials between roots and shoots; xylem-transports water; pholem- transports nutrients
Ground Tissue
includes cells specialized for storage, photosynthesis, and support; doesn't protect or transport; sandwiched between upper and lower epidermis
Parenchyma cell
A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type
Collenchyma cell
A flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the pant without restraining growth
Sclerenchyma cell
A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possesssing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity
Apical meristem
located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots; elongate shoots and roots
Lateral meristem
adds thickness to woody plants (secondary growth); vascular cambium and cork cambium
Vascular cambium
adds layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem (secondary growth)
Cork Cambium
replaces the epidermis with periderm, which I thicker and tougher (secondary growth)
Root cap
covers tip of the root and protects the apical meristem as the root pushes through soil
Primary Growth- roots
produces epidermis, ground tissue, and vasclar tissue; the ground tissue fills cortex and region between vascular cylinder; innermast layer of cortex-endodermis
Primary Growth- shoots
dome shape mass dividing cells at the tip of the terminal bud; gives rise to repetition of internides and leaf-bearing nodes
Stomata
allows CO2 exchange between the air and the photosynthetic cells in a leaf; interrupts the epidermis
Sporophyte
dominant generation for plants; the multicellular diploid that results from the union of gametes
Male gametophytes
pollen grains; haploid gametes once unted with embyro sac goes into the sporophyte stage
Female gametophyes
Embryo sacs; when joined with pollen grains goes into the sporophyte stage
Sepal
Protects the floral bud before it opens
Petals
Attract insects and other pollinators to the plant with their color and fragrance
Stamen
Male reproductive organs (anthers and filaments)
Carpels
Female reproductive organs (ovaries, stigma, and style)
Antheridium
The male gametangium, (a chamber where gametes develop)
Archegonium
The female gametangium
Megaspore
a spore that develops into a female gametophyte
Microspore
a spore that develops into a male gametophyte
Sporangium
A capsule where meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop
Complete Flowers
Have all four basic organs (sepals, petals, stamen, carpels)
Incomplete Flowers
Lack one or more of sepals, petals, stamen, carpels; staminate-incomplete flowers that only have a functional stamen; Caprellate- incomplete flowers with only a functional carpel
Pollination
the transfer of pollem from an anther to a stigma
Pollen development
Pollination suceeds a pollen grain produces a pollen tube that grows down into the ovary and discharges sperm near the embryo sac; develops from microspores in the sporangia of the anthers
Self incompatibility
a plant's inability to self fertilize
Seed
embyro and food supply, ovule, the product of fertilization in angiosperm
Fruits
Ovary, the product of fertilization in an angiosperm; protects the enclosed seed and aids in tseed dispersal by wind or animals
Double Fertilization
a pollen tube discharges two sperm into the embryo sac one fertilizes the egg and the other combines with the polar nuclei making food storing endosperm
Simple Fruit
develops from one carpel
Aggregate Fruit
raspberry- two or more carpels
Multiple Fruit
comes from two or more flowers
Vegetative reproduction
asexual reproduction in plants
Fragmentation
separation of a parent plant into part that develop into whole plants; very common in asexual plants
Clones from Cutting
Many plants are asexually reproduced from plant fragments
Grafting
a twing or bud can be grafted onto a plant of a closely related species or variety
Arificial Selection
...
Recpetion
proteins on cell surface receives chmical signals and changes shape
Transduction
second message to cell- cell either changes transcription or translation
Response
chemical message change the shape of the protein
Tropism
A growth response that results in the curvature of whole plant organs toward or awat from stimuli owing to differential rates of cell elongation
Thigmotropism
directional growth of a plant in response to touch
Geotropisms
A response of a plant or animal to gravity results from Auxin
Phototropisms
Growth of a plant shoot toward or away from light; results from Auxin; doesn't grow in sun
Auxin
enhances apical dominance, forms aventatious roots, stem elongation, 1st hormone, human-made, kills weeds; found in embyro of seed, meristems of apical buds, and young leaves
Cytokinins
Stimulates cytokinesis and cell division, works with Auxin to divide cells, works against Auxin in apical dominance; found in synthesized roots and transported to other organs
Gibberellins
induces bolting, rapid growth of flower stalk, works with Auxin to promote cell growth; found in meristems of apical buds and roots, young leaves and embryo
Abscisic Acid
inhibits growth, enables plants to withstand drought (closes stomata), promotes seed dormancy; found in leaves, stems, roots, and green fruit
Ethylene
ges form, promotes fruit ripening, positive feedback-(one bad apple spoils the bunch); found in tissues of ripening fruit, nodes of stems, aging leaves and flowers
Circadian rhythm
A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persists evenn in the absence of external cues.
Phytochrome
a class of light receptors in plants
Photoperiodism
A physiological response to photo period, the relative lengths of night and day
Monocot
one embryo, scattered vascular bundles of stem, parallel leaf veneration, floral parts usually in 3s, fibrous roots, one opening pollen
Dicot
Two embryos, Vascular bundles of stem in a ring, Net-like leaf veneration, floral parts in 4s or 5s, Taproots, Three openings pollen
Symplastic route
via the continuum of cytosol; goes through the cell
Apoplastic route
via the cell walls and extracellular spaces; along the membrane
Osmosis
moves from soil through roots because it goes from high water potential to low to help it reach an equilibrium
Root hair
A tiny extension of a roott epidermal cell, growing just behind the rott tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals
Mycorhizae
roots and fungi form- symbiotic consisting of plant roots united with fungal hyphae; increased surface area more absorption
Endodermis
the innermost layer of cells in the root cortex
Casparian Strip
the reason some apoplastics must turn nto sympastic because of the waxy strip the minerals can't get around
Transpiration
the evaporation of water from leaves and other aerial parts of the plant; evaporation causes this
Translocation
the transport of organic nutrients in a plant; opposite of transpiration
Sugar Source
an organ that is a net producer of sugar, such as mature leaves
Sugar Sink
An organ that is a net consumer or stores sugar
Root Pressure
transpiration is very low, root cells continue pumping mineral ions in to the xylem of the vascular cylinder, lowering the water potential; pressure goes up water pressure goes up stem into leaves
Guttation
the exudation of water droplets on tips of grass blades or on leaves
Transpiration-Cohesion Adhesionn Mechanism
Water pulled up by negative pressure in xylem- transpiration provides the pull, cohesion by hydrogen bonding transmits the upward from the xylem to the roots; the movement of sylem sap against gravity
Transpirational Pull
water exits throught he stomata after it diffues down its gradient; transpiration produces negative pressure which exerts a pulling force on water in the xylem, pulling water into the leaf
Cohesion
water molecules bind to each other
Adhesion
water molecules bind to sides of stem
Sucrose into phloem
Proton pump and co-transport and H+ enable the cells to accumulate sucrose; H+ and sucrose help each other get into the cell
Gravitational Potential
ignore because gravity is not a large force for small trees
Electrical Potential
Ignore because water is uncharged
Pure water
no potential the water pressure is 0
Water potential
increased by pressure potential and decreased by addition of solutes which lowers solute potential
Guard Cells
control the diameter of the stroma by changing shape
Proton Pump
uses ATP to pump hdrogen out of cells, which causes the inside of the cell to become negative