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Root System

Anchoring the plants, absorbing minerals and water, often storing organic nutrients; underground

Shoot System

Above ground, Stems,leaves-most photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants


nodes, internodes, axillary bud, terminal bud


main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants; consists of a flattened blade and a stalk, the petiole, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem


the points at which leaves are attached


The stem segments between nodes

Axillary bud

a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot or branch

Terminal bud

located near the shoot tip and cases elongation of a young shoot

Dermal tissue

A single layer of closely packed cells that covers the entire pland and protects it; non-woody- epidermis; woody- periderm

Vascular Tissue

carries out long-distance transport of materials between roots and shoots; xylem-transports water; pholem- transports nutrients

Ground Tissue

includes cells specialized for storage, photosynthesis, and support; doesn't protect or transport; sandwiched between upper and lower epidermis

Parenchyma cell

A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type

Collenchyma cell

A flexible plant cell type that occurs in strands or cylinders that support young parts of the pant without restraining growth

Sclerenchyma cell

A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possesssing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity

Apical meristem

located at the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots; elongate shoots and roots

Lateral meristem

adds thickness to woody plants (secondary growth); vascular cambium and cork cambium

Vascular cambium

adds layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem (secondary growth)

Cork Cambium

replaces the epidermis with periderm, which I thicker and tougher (secondary growth)

Root cap

covers tip of the root and protects the apical meristem as the root pushes through soil

Primary Growth- roots

produces epidermis, ground tissue, and vasclar tissue; the ground tissue fills cortex and region between vascular cylinder; innermast layer of cortex-endodermis

Primary Growth- shoots

dome shape mass dividing cells at the tip of the terminal bud; gives rise to repetition of internides and leaf-bearing nodes


allows CO2 exchange between the air and the photosynthetic cells in a leaf; interrupts the epidermis


dominant generation for plants; the multicellular diploid that results from the union of gametes

Male gametophytes

pollen grains; haploid gametes once unted with embyro sac goes into the sporophyte stage

Female gametophyes

Embryo sacs; when joined with pollen grains goes into the sporophyte stage


Protects the floral bud before it opens


Attract insects and other pollinators to the plant with their color and fragrance


Male reproductive organs (anthers and filaments)


Female reproductive organs (ovaries, stigma, and style)


The male gametangium, (a chamber where gametes develop)


The female gametangium


a spore that develops into a female gametophyte


a spore that develops into a male gametophyte


A capsule where meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop

Complete Flowers

Have all four basic organs (sepals, petals, stamen, carpels)

Incomplete Flowers

Lack one or more of sepals, petals, stamen, carpels; staminate-incomplete flowers that only have a functional stamen; Caprellate- incomplete flowers with only a functional carpel


the transfer of pollem from an anther to a stigma

Pollen development

Pollination suceeds a pollen grain produces a pollen tube that grows down into the ovary and discharges sperm near the embryo sac; develops from microspores in the sporangia of the anthers

Self incompatibility

a plant's inability to self fertilize


embyro and food supply, ovule, the product of fertilization in angiosperm


Ovary, the product of fertilization in an angiosperm; protects the enclosed seed and aids in tseed dispersal by wind or animals

Double Fertilization

a pollen tube discharges two sperm into the embryo sac one fertilizes the egg and the other combines with the polar nuclei making food storing endosperm

Simple Fruit

develops from one carpel

Aggregate Fruit

raspberry- two or more carpels

Multiple Fruit

comes from two or more flowers

Vegetative reproduction

asexual reproduction in plants


separation of a parent plant into part that develop into whole plants; very common in asexual plants

Clones from Cutting

Many plants are asexually reproduced from plant fragments


a twing or bud can be grafted onto a plant of a closely related species or variety

Arificial Selection



proteins on cell surface receives chmical signals and changes shape


second message to cell- cell either changes transcription or translation


chemical message change the shape of the protein


A growth response that results in the curvature of whole plant organs toward or awat from stimuli owing to differential rates of cell elongation


directional growth of a plant in response to touch


A response of a plant or animal to gravity results from Auxin


Growth of a plant shoot toward or away from light; results from Auxin; doesn't grow in sun


enhances apical dominance, forms aventatious roots, stem elongation, 1st hormone, human-made, kills weeds; found in embyro of seed, meristems of apical buds, and young leaves


Stimulates cytokinesis and cell division, works with Auxin to divide cells, works against Auxin in apical dominance; found in synthesized roots and transported to other organs


induces bolting, rapid growth of flower stalk, works with Auxin to promote cell growth; found in meristems of apical buds and roots, young leaves and embryo

Abscisic Acid

inhibits growth, enables plants to withstand drought (closes stomata), promotes seed dormancy; found in leaves, stems, roots, and green fruit


ges form, promotes fruit ripening, positive feedback-(one bad apple spoils the bunch); found in tissues of ripening fruit, nodes of stems, aging leaves and flowers

Circadian rhythm

A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persists evenn in the absence of external cues.


a class of light receptors in plants


A physiological response to photo period, the relative lengths of night and day


one embryo, scattered vascular bundles of stem, parallel leaf veneration, floral parts usually in 3s, fibrous roots, one opening pollen


Two embryos, Vascular bundles of stem in a ring, Net-like leaf veneration, floral parts in 4s or 5s, Taproots, Three openings pollen

Symplastic route

via the continuum of cytosol; goes through the cell

Apoplastic route

via the cell walls and extracellular spaces; along the membrane


moves from soil through roots because it goes from high water potential to low to help it reach an equilibrium

Root hair

A tiny extension of a roott epidermal cell, growing just behind the rott tip and increasing surface area for absorption of water and minerals


roots and fungi form- symbiotic consisting of plant roots united with fungal hyphae; increased surface area more absorption


the innermost layer of cells in the root cortex

Casparian Strip

the reason some apoplastics must turn nto sympastic because of the waxy strip the minerals can't get around


the evaporation of water from leaves and other aerial parts of the plant; evaporation causes this


the transport of organic nutrients in a plant; opposite of transpiration

Sugar Source

an organ that is a net producer of sugar, such as mature leaves

Sugar Sink

An organ that is a net consumer or stores sugar

Root Pressure

transpiration is very low, root cells continue pumping mineral ions in to the xylem of the vascular cylinder, lowering the water potential; pressure goes up water pressure goes up stem into leaves


the exudation of water droplets on tips of grass blades or on leaves

Transpiration-Cohesion Adhesionn Mechanism

Water pulled up by negative pressure in xylem- transpiration provides the pull, cohesion by hydrogen bonding transmits the upward from the xylem to the roots; the movement of sylem sap against gravity

Transpirational Pull

water exits throught he stomata after it diffues down its gradient; transpiration produces negative pressure which exerts a pulling force on water in the xylem, pulling water into the leaf


water molecules bind to each other


water molecules bind to sides of stem

Sucrose into phloem

Proton pump and co-transport and H+ enable the cells to accumulate sucrose; H+ and sucrose help each other get into the cell

Gravitational Potential

ignore because gravity is not a large force for small trees

Electrical Potential

Ignore because water is uncharged

Pure water

no potential the water pressure is 0

Water potential

increased by pressure potential and decreased by addition of solutes which lowers solute potential

Guard Cells

control the diameter of the stroma by changing shape

Proton Pump

uses ATP to pump hdrogen out of cells, which causes the inside of the cell to become negative

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