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Study guide based off of exam 2's questions

_________________ are antimicrobial proteins.
A) Bradykinins
B) Interferons
C) Cytokines
D) Prostaglandins
E) Kinins


The large intestine reabsorbs water, fats, and salts.


Red bone marrow is the point of origin of all immune cells of the lymphatic system.


________________ are secreted by cells infected with viruses, alerting neighboring cells and protecting them from becoming infected.





Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a Good Samaritan have up to 4 or 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom's life?
-a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood
-the Haldane effect lasts up to 5 minutes
-reserve oxygen in Tom's lungs
-the ambient Po2 can support life that long

a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood

Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
-carbonic anhydrase

carbonic anhydrase

_______________ is not a cardinal sign characteristic of inflammation.

-Impaired use

Impaired use

The digestive system processes food, extracts nutrients, and eliminates the residue.


The enterogastric reflex serves to
-inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine.
-stimulate acid and enzyme secretion when food enters the stomach.
-relax the stomach in preparation for swallowed food.

inhibit gastric motility when there is chyme in the small intestine.

Gastric juice consists entirely of water and hydrochloric acid.


Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except

-carbonic acid.



Defecation is stimulated by

-bacterial flora in the feces.
-stretching of the rectum.
-the chemical composition of the feces.

stretching of the rectum.

Absorption of many nutrients starts in the stomach.


The liver is the body's largest gland.


Helper T cells respond only to epitopes attached to MHC proteins.


The upper respiratory tract extends
-from the nose through the trachea.
-from the nose through the pharynx.
-from the nose through the larynx.

from the nose through the larynx.

Hemoglobin releases the same amount of oxygen to all the tissues regardless of variations in their metabolic rate.


Pus is made of dead neutrophils, macrophages and other tissue debris from a damaged tissue.


Odor, sight, and taste stimulate salivatory nuclei in the cerebral cortex.


Both chemical and mechanical digestion start in the mouth and continue in the stomach.


This organ shows a remarkable degree of degeneration (involution) with age.

- spleen


Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?
A) thyroid hormone
B) fever
C) low pH
D) epinephrine
E) erythrocyte count

erythrocyte count

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to _____ oxygen molecules.


Which has the highest concentration in the air we breathe?
-carbon dioxide


Both pancreatic juice and bile are secreted into the duodenum.


Congestive heart failure results in which of the following?

-ischemic hypoxia
-anemic hypoxia
-idiopathic hypoxia

ischemic hypoxia

Lymph originates in blood capillaries that pick up tissue fluid.


The small intestine begins with the duodenum, which is its longest segment.


The nose is divided into right and left halves termed the

-nasal fossae.
-nasal cavities.
-nasal septa.

nasal fossae.

Memory B cells are found circulating mainly in the lymph.


Antibodies do not

-bind antigen molecules of two or more enemy cells and stick them together.
-link antigen molecules together.
-differentiate into memory antibodies, which upon reexposure to the same pathogen would mount a quicker attack.
-neutralize antigens by binding to regions of an antigen that can be pathogenic.

differentiate into memory antibodies, which upon reexposure to the same pathogen would mount a quicker attack

The three most abundant classes of nutrients are

-triglycerides, starches, and proteins.
-fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.
-proteins, fats, and minerals.

fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.

Interferons are secreted in response to bacterial infections.


Chemical digestion breaks down ____________ into _____________.

-polysaccharides; amino acids
-fatty acids; cholesterol
-nucleic acids; nucleotides

nucleic acids; nucleotides

Each of the following lists some of the tissue layers of the digestive tract. Which one has them in correct order from lumen to external surface?

-serosa, lamina propria, submucosa, muscularis mucosae, muscularis externa

-mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, lamina propria, serosa

-lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
Lam, mm, sub, me, ser

lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
(Lam, mm, sub, me, ser)

Vital capacity consists of

-expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume.

-inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume.

-expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume.

expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume. (ERV+TV+IRV)

Among its other purposes, the Valsalva maneuver (and lime-green shorts) is used

-to ventilate the lungs during eupnea.

-to aid in defecation and urination.
-to expel more than the usual tidal volume from the lungs.

to aid in defecation and urination.

During exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?

-increased H+ level in the blood

-reduced oxyhemoglobin

-anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle

-the Bohr effect

anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle

Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?



A person who is HIV-positive and has a helper T (TH) cells count lower than ____________ has AIDS.

-200 cells/μL
-1,000 cells/μL
-50 cells/μL

200 cells/μL

The small intestine is suspended from the abdominal wall by
-the mesentery.
-the lesser omentum.
-the greater omentum.

the mesentery.

These are normally found in saliva except



Humoral immunity takes care of intracellular viruses, whereas cellular immunity takes care of extracellular viruses.


These are all accessory organs of the digestive system except

-salivary glands.


This is the first of a series of neutrophil behaviors in inflammation.



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