34 terms

Diabetes (Endocrine Pancreas 1)


Terms in this set (...)

Most prevalent cell type in the Islets of the pancreas
B cells
Product of B cells in pancreas? A cells?
B: insulin
A: glucAgon
Primary target tissue for glucagon
Primary target tissue for insulin
skeletal muscle
Most important signal for insulin release
blood glucose
What common feature is shared amongst all types of diabetes?
Contrast the insulin levels in T1 and T2 diabetes
T1: deficient and declining
T2: increased

note: T2 levels will decrease over the course of the disease due to B-cell burnout
Which emergent situation is most commonly associated with T1 DM?
diabetic ketoacidosis
Which emergent situation is most commonly associated with T2 DM?
hyperglycemic hyperosmotic syndrome
Which type of DM has a stronger genetic predisposition?
Type 2
Mechanism of T1 DM
autoimmune destruction of B-cells of the pancreas
Histological appearance of T1 DM

-- islets infiltrated with lymphocytes
Histological appearance for T2 DM
amyloid deposition
Hyperglycemia and Sx of DM with onset in the 2nd or 3rd trimester of pregnancy
gestational DM
List 2 fetal risks of Overt DM of a pregnant mother
1. miscarriage or stillbirth
2. congenital abnormalities
List 4 fetal risks of gestational and overt DM
1. macrosomia
2. birth asphyxia
3. respiratory distress
4. hypoglycemia
In terms of Dx for DM, what are the most important parts?
History and PE
The 3 P's of DM
Term for Hb A1c
glycated hemoglobin
Glycated Hb measures:
Hb irreversibly bound by glucose
Fasting plasma glucose measure:
glucose in circulation
Oral GTT measures:
glucose in circulation over multiple time points
Which test measures the patient's insulin response?
Oral GTT
Which test measures average blood glucose levels?
Glycated hemoglobin
Which test for Glc is most convenient?
Glycated hemoglobin
Test recommended for diagnosis of DM in patients with CF
Oral GTT
Glycated hemoglobin is unreliable in what 4 scenarios?
- hemoglobinopathy
- increased RBC turnover (falsely low)
- decreased RBC turnover (falsely high)
- recent transfusion
In what 2 patients is oral GTT mostly used?
1. Gestational DM work-up
2. CF that's undiagnosed
Cutoff for A1c for DM
What is the best way to prevent complications from DM?
maintenance of hyperglycemia
In terms of onset, which acute crisis of diabetes is rapid?
In terms of onset, which acute crisis of diabetes takes days?
hyperglycemic hyperosmotic syndrome
Most common cause of death in children/adolescents with T1DM
Kussmaul respiration and a fruity/acetone breath are associated with what acute crisis of DM?

Diabetes, Kussmaul, Acetone