Key Court Cases 2015-2016
Marbury v. Madison
Established judicial review
McCulloch v. Maryland
Established national supremacy
Plessy v. Ferguson
Established separate but equal.
Schenck V. U.S.
limits on speech, esp. in wartime; clear and present danger test
Gitlow v. New York
Established precedent of federalizing Bill of Rights (applying them to the states); freedom of speech protected
Palko v. Connecticut
Provided test for determining which parts of Bill of Rights should be federalized - those which are implicitly or explicitly necessary for liberty to exist.
Brown v. Board, 1st
School segregation unconstitutional
Brown v. Board of Education 2nd
Ordered schools to desegregate "with all due and deliberate speed."
Mapp v. Ohio
illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court
Engel v. Vitale
Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools
Baker v. Carr
Ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population
Abbington v. Schempp
Prohibited devotional Bible reading in public schools
Gideon v. Wainright
Ordered states to provide lawyers for those unable to afford them in criminal proceedings.
Wesberry v. Sanders
Ordered House districts to be as near equal in population as possible.
Griswald v. Connecticut
Established right of privacy through 4th and 9th Amendments.
Miranda v. Arizona
Established warnings of counsel and silence. Must be given before questioning.
Lemon v. Kurtzman
Established 3-part test to determine if establishment clause is violated
Roe v. Wade
Established national abortion guidelines
U.S. v. Nixon
Allowed for executive privilege, but not in criminal cases
Buckley v. Valeo
1st Amendment protects campaign spending
U.C. Regents v. Bakke
Alan Bakke and UC Davis Medical School; strict quotas unconstitutional but states may allow race to be taken into account as ONE factor in admissions decisions.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services
More leeway for states in regulating abortion, though no overturning of Roe v. Wade.
Texas v. Johnson
Struck down Texas law that banned flag burning, which is a protected form of symbolic speech.
Employment Division of Oregon v. Smith
States could deny unemployment benefits to a person fired for violating a state prohibition on the use of peyote even though the use of the drug was part of a religious ritual.
Planned Parenthood v.Casey
States can regulate abortion, but not with regulations that impose "undue burden" upon women
Shaw v. Reno
No racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries; majority-minority districts.
U.S. v. Lopez
Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Clinton v. NY
Banned presidential use of line item veto
Bush v. Gore
Use of 14th Amendment's equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount in the election of 2000.
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris
Public money can be used to send disadvantaged children to religious schools in tuition voucher programs.
Ashcroft v. ACLU
Struck down a federal ban on "virtual" child pornography
Lawrence v. Texas
Using right of privacy, struck down Texas law banning sodomy.
Gratz v. Bollinger
Struck down use of "bonus points" for race in undergrad admissions at University of Michigan.
Grutter v. Bollinger
Allowed the use of race as a general factor in law school admissions at University of Michigan.
Kelo v. City of New London
Local governments may force the sale of private property and make way for private economic development when officials decide it would benefit the public.
Gonzales v. Carhart
Upheld Partial Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003.
DC v. Heller
Struck down a Washington DC ordinance that banned handguns
United States v. Windsor
The federal government must recognize marriages that have been approved by the states.
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