Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses, including professional, financial, and transportation services
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
clustered rural settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and education, health, and leisure services
dispersed rural settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
A community's collection of basic industries.
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service.
Literally, "country behind," a term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods and services produced for its hinterland and is its dominant urban influence as well. (also called market area)
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services. (also called hinterland)
Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
primate city rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
the maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
a pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
transportation and information services
Businesses that diffuse and distribute services. In the U.S., 6% of all jobs are in this group of services. One half of these services are in transportation, primarily trucking. The other half are in information services, including publishing and broadcasting.
central business district (CBD)
The downtown heart of a central city, the CBD is marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
a large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
types of industries like accounting, consulting, advertising, etc. that are provided by industries to other industries, not to consumers (also known as specialized producer services)
Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world's biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy.
Services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
suburbanization of business
The development of urban areas outside central cities, and the movement of businesses into these areas. Manufacturers choose peripheral locations because land costs are lower. Service providers have moved to the suburbs because most of their customers are there
the high rise, architectural development which came from the invention of steel and the Otis elevators. More prevalent in the United States than in Europe.
command and control centers
Third level of cities that contains the headquarters of many large corporations, well-developed banking facilities, and concentrations of other business services, including insurance, accounting, advertising, law, and public relations.
Fourth-level cities that provide relatively unskilled jobs and depend for their economic health on decisions made in the higher level cities.
Services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers. Example: Gym membership, health and education related fields.