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allow separate systems to communicate directly with each other, eliminating the need for manual entry into multiple systems. Ideally, an organization wants to build both forward and backward integrations, which provide the flexibility to create, update, and delete information in any of the systems. However, integrations are expensive and difficult to build and maintain, causing most organizations to invest in forward integrations only.
provide enterprisewide support and data access for a firm's operations and business processes
supply chain management (SCM)
is the management of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and corporate profitability.
systems development lifecycle (SDLC)
the overall process for developing information systems, from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance. Is the foundation for all systems development methods, and hundreds of different activities are associated with each phase: determining budgets, gathering system requirements, and writing detailed user documentation.
SDLC phase; establishes a high-level plan of the intended project and determines project goal. Is the first and most critical phase of any systems development effort an organization undertakes.
SLDC phase; the firm analyzes its end-user business requirements and refines project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system. 'Business requirements' are the specific business requests the system must meet to be successful, so the analysis phase is critical.
SLDC phase; establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation.
SLDC phase; takes all the design documents from the design phase and transforms them into the actual system. In this phase the project transitions from preliminary designs to actual physical implementation.
SLDC phase; brings all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs, and verify that the system meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase.
SLDC phase; the organization places the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it.
SLDC phase; the organization performs changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet its business goals. This phase continues for the life cycle of the system because the system must change as the business evolves and its need changes.
a set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques, and tasks that people apply to technical and management challenges. Firms use this to manage the deployment of technology with work plans, requirements documents, and test plans, for instance.
the oldest and best-known style of methodology; a sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next. In the SLDC, this means the steps are performed one at a time, in order, from planning through implementation and maintenance.
this is the ultimate methodology style in smaller projects. Basically, it consists of a series of tiny projects, it has become the foundation of multiple agile methodologies.
an __ ____ aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements. This methodology is fast and efficient, with lower costs and fewer features. These methods help refine feasibility and supports the process for getting rapid feedback as functionality is introduced.
rapid application development methodology (RAD)
in response to the faster pace of business, rapid application development has become a popular route for accelerating systems development. This methodology emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system, to accelerate the systems development process.
a smaller-scale represenation or working model of the users' requirements or the proposed design for an information system. The ___ is an essential part of the analysis phase when using the RAD methodology.
extreme programming methodology (XP)
like other agile methods, breaks a project into four phases, and developers cannot continue to the next phase until the previous phase is complete. The delivery strategy supporting XP is that the quicker the feedback the more improved the results. XP has four basic phases: planning, designing, coding, and testing.
rational unified process methodology (RUP)
owned by IBM, provides a framework for breaking down the development software into four "gates". Each gate consists of executable iterations of the software in development. Gate one is inception, gate two: elaboration, gate three: construction, and gate four: transition.
another agile methodology, ___ _____, uses small teams to produce pieces of software using a series of "sprints", or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal. In this methodology, each day ends or begins with a stand-up meeting to monitor and control the development effort.
reasons for development failures
primary reasons: unclear or missing business requirments, skipping phases, changing technology, and the cost of finding errors in the SDLC.
Project Management Institute (PMI)
develops procedures and concepts necessary to support the profession of project management. PMI defines a 'project' as a temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service, or result. 'Product management' is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.
is an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure the project is completed on time and on budget.
part of project management; any measurable, tangible, verifiable outcome, result, or item that is produced to complete a project or part of a project. Examples include: design documents, testing scripts, and requirements documents.
part of project management; represent key dates when a certain group of activities must be performed. For example, completing the planning phase might be a project milestone. If one is missed, then chances are the project is experiencing problems.
project management office (PMO)
is an internal department that oversees all organizational projects. This group must formalize and professionalize project management expertise and leadership. One of the primary initiatives of the PMO is to educate the organization on techniques and procedures necessary to run successful projects.
the triple constraint
displays the relationship between the three primary and interdependent variables in any project - time, cost, and scope. All projects are limited in some way by these three constraints. The Project Management Institute calls the framework for evaluation these competing demand __ ___ ___.
are individuals and organizations actively involved in the project or whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution or project completion.
the person or group who provides the financial resources for the project. Research has shown that the leadership strength of the executive sponsor has more to do with the success or failure of a project than any other critical success factor.
choosing strategic projects
the following are techniques managers use to determine which projects to work on that best fit the goals of the business: 1) focus on organizational goals, 2) categorize business priorities, and 3) perform financial analysis.
is a document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the start of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
project scope statement
part of the project charter; links the project to the organization's overall business goals. It describes the business need and the justification ,requirements, and current boundaries for the project.
part of the project charter; are quantifiable criteria that must be met for the project to be considered a success.
part of the project charter; are specific factors that can limit options. They include budget, delivery dates, available skilled resources, and organizational policies.
part of the project charter; are factors considered to be true, real, or certain without proof or demonstration. Examples include hours in a worksheet or year of work will be performed.
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) chart
is a graphical network model that depicts a project's tasks and the relationships between them. These charts define dependency between project tasks before those tasks are scheduled. The arrows indicate that a task depends on the start or the completion of a different task. The 'critical path' estimates the shortest path through the project ensuring all critical tasks are completed from start to finish.
a ___ is a logical relationship that exists between the project tasks, or between a project task and a milestone.
is a simple bar chart that lists project tasks vertically against the project's time frame listed horizontally. This chart works well for representing the project schedule. It also shows actual progress of tasks against the planned duration.
a competent project manager sets the correct expectations early in the project with achievable milestones. Managing a project includes: 1) identifying requirements, 2) establishing clear and achievable objectives, 3) balancing the competing demands of quality, scope, time, and cost, 4) adapting specifications, plans, and approach to the different concerns and expectations of the various stakeholders.
part of managing projects; among the most challenging efforts a project manager undertakes. Resolving conflicts within the team and balancing then needs of the project with the personal and professional needs of the team are two of the project manager's critical goals.
part of managing projects; it is extremely helpful helpful if a project manager plans what and how he or she will communicate as a formal part of the project management plan called a communication plan. A project manager distributes timely, accurate, and meaningful information regarding project objectives, including the schedule, cost, scope, quality, and status of each.
part of managing projects; successful organizations and successful people learn to anticipate and react appropriately to change.
part of managing change; offers procedures and policies managers can use to help manage change during system development. A 'change management system' includes a collection of procedures to document a change request and identifies the expected impact associated with the change.
change control board (CCB)
change requests from a change management system are considered by this board that is responsible for approving or rejecting all change requests. The CCB's composition typically includes a representative from each business area that has a stake in the project. The CCB's decision to accept or reject each change is based on an impact analysis of the change.
in-sourcing (in-house development)
uses the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain its information technology systems. Has been instrumental in creating a viable supply of IT professionals and in creating a better quality of workforce combining both technical and business skills.
an arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house. In some cases, the entire MIS department is outsourced, including planning and business analysis as well as the design, development, and maintenance of equipment and projects. Reasons for outsourcing: 1) core competencies, 2) financial savings, 3) rapid growth, and 4) the Internet globalization.
types of outsourcing
the three forms of outsourcing options available for a project are: 1) onshore outsourcing - engaging another company within the same country for services. 2) nearshore outsourcing - contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country. Often this country will share a border with the native country. 3) offshore outsourcing - using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems. In offshore outsourcing the country is geographically far away.
the many benefits associated with outsourcing include: 1) increased quality and efficiency of business processes, 2) reduced operating expenses for head count and exposure to risk for large capital investments. 3) access to outsourcing services provider's expertise, economies of scale, best practices, and advanced technologies. And 4) increased flexibility for faster response to market changes and less time to market for new products or services.
outsourcing comes with several challenges: 1) length of contract, 2) threat to competitive advantage, 3) loss of confidentiality
method of integration that links processes in the value chain; takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all downstream systems and processes.
method of integration that links processes in the value chain; takes information entered into a given system and sends it automatically to all upstream systems and processes.
integrations are achieved using ___ - several different types of software that sit between and provide connectivity for two or more software applications. It translates information between disparate systems.
enterprise application integration (EAI) middleware
type of middleware; takes a new approach to middleware by packaging commonly used applications together, reducing the time needed to integrate applications from multiple vendors.
consists of all parties involved, directly or indirectly, in obtaining raw materials or a product. There are five basic activities: 1) plan, 2) source, 3) make, 4) deliver, and 5) return.
supply chain management (SCM)
the management of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and corporate profitability. These systems manage and enhance these relationships with the primary goal of creating a fast, efficient, and low-cost network of business relationships that take products from concept to market. Has three main business processes: 1) materials flow from suppliers and their upstream suppliers at all levels, 2) materials are transformed into finished products - the organization's own production processes, 3) products are distributed to customers and their downstream customers at all levels.
part of a typical supply chain; include: suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, and suppliers' suppliers.
part of a typical supply chain; include: customers, retailers, distributors, and customers' customers.
effective and efficient SCM
enable an organization to have these impacts on Porter's Five Forces Model: 1) decrease power of its buyers, 2) increase its own supplier power, 3) increase buyers' switching costs to reduce the threat of substitute products or services, 4) create entry barriers to reduce the threat of new entrants, 5) increase efficiencies while seeking a competitive advantage through cost leadership.
supply chain visibility
the ability to view all areas up and down the supply chain in real time. To react to demand, an organization needs to know all customer events triggered upstream and downstream and so must their suppliers and their suppliers' suppliers.
supply chain planning systems
use advanced mathematical algorithms to improve the flow and efficiency of the supply chain while reducing inventory.
supply chain execution systems
Ideally, the supply chain consists of multiple firms that function as efficiently and effectively as a single firm, with full information visibility. This system ensures supply chain cohesion by automating the different activities of the supply chain. For example, it might electronically route orders from a manufacturer to a supplier using 'electronic data interchange' or EDI, a standard format for the electronic exchange of information between supply chain participants.
a good example of inventory issues that occur when a company does not have a clear vision of its entire supply chain is the ___ ___. This occurs when distorted product-demand information ripples from one partner to the next throughout the supply chain. The misinformation regarding a slight rise in demand for a product could cause different members in the supply chain to stockpile inventory.
demand planning systems
generate demand forecasts using statistical tools and forecasting techniques, so companies can respond faster and more effectively to consumer demand through supply chain enhancements. Firms implement these systems to understand customer demand and production capabilities so they can estimate supply chain costs that ultimately impact the firm's performance and business strategies.
: 1) back order - an unfilled customer order for a product that is out of stock, 2) inventory cycle time - the time it takes to manufacture a product and deliver it to the trailer, 3) customer order cycle time - the agreed upon time between the purchase of a product and the delivery of the product, and 4) inventory turnover - the frequency of inventory replacement
challenges of SCM
the primary challenges associated with supply chain management include costs and complexity. They can cost millions of dollars for the software and millions of dollars more fore help with the implementation. In addition, revamping all the business processes that touch the supply chain is an incredibly difficult and complex task. The move toward globalization is also increasing supply chain complexity.
the future of SCM
the next wave in SCM will be home-based supply chain fulfillment. No more running to the store to replace your products as your store will come to you as soon as you need a new product. As the supply chain management market matures, it is becoming even more sophisticated and incorporating additional functionality such as marketing, customer service, and even product development to its extended supply chain.
the fastest-growing SCM components
the future of SCM; 1) collaborative demand planning - reduces inventory investments, while improving customer satisfaction, 2) collaborative engineering - reduces product development costs, 3) selling chain management - automates order processes from initial customer inquiry to final product delivery, 4) supply chain event management (SCEM) - increases real-time information sharing among supply chain partners focusing on reducing response time to unexpected events.
customer relationship managment (CRM)
a means of managing all aspects of a customer's relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization's profitability. Allows an organization to gain insights into customers' shopping and buying behaviors. Every time a customer communicates with a company, the firm has the chance to build a trusting relationship with that particular customer.
benefits of CRM
companies that understand individual customer needs are best positioned to achieve success. Firms can find their most valuable customers by using the RFM formula - recency, frequency, and monetary value or : 1) how recently a customer purchased items, 2) how frequently a customer purchases items, 3) and the monetary value of each customer purchase.
evolution of CRM
there are three phases in the evolution of CRM: 1) reporting - help organizations identify their customers across other applications, 2) analyzing - help organizations segment their customers into categories such as best and worst customers, and 3) predicting - help organizations predict customer behavior, such as which customers are at risk of leaving.
supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations or systems that deal directly with customers.
supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customers.
marketing (operational CRM)
a marketing campaign's success is directly proportional to the organization's ability to gather and analyze the right customer information. The three primary operational CRM technologies a marketing department can implement to increase customer satisfaction: 1) list generator, 2) campaign management, and 3) cross-selling and up-selling.
part of marketing operational CRM; these compile customer information from a variety of sources and segment it for different marketing campaigns. These sources include website visits, questionnaires, survey, marketing mailers, and so on. Provide the marketing department with valuable information on the type of customer it must target to find success for a marketing campaign.
campaign management system
part of marketing operational CRM; guides users through marketing campaigns by performing such tasks as campaign definition, planning, scheduling, segmentation, and success analysis.
part of marketing operational CRM; is selling additional products or services to an existing customer. Amazon is taking advantage of this aspect of selling by offering customers goods across its book, movie, and music product lines.
part of marketing operational CRM; is increasing the value of the sale. McDonald's performs this by asking customers whether they would like to super-size their meals for an extra cost.
sales force automation (SFA)
automatically tracks all the steps in the sales process. SFA products focus on increasing customer satisfaction, building customer relationships, and improving product sales. The three primary operational CRM technologies a sales department can adopt are: 1) sales managment CRM systems, 2) contact management CRM systems, and 3) opportunity management CRM systems.
sales management CRM systems
primary operational CRM technology for sales; automates each phase of the sales process, helping individual sales coordinate and organize all their accounts. Features include calendars, reminders for important tasks, multimedia presentations, and document generation.
contact management CRM system
primary operational CRM technology for sales; maintains customer contact information and identifies prospective customers for future sales, using tools such as organizational charts, detailed customer notes, and supplemental sales information.
opportunity management CRM system
primary operational CRM technology for sales; targets sales opportunities by finding new customers or companies for future sales. They determine new potential customers and competitors and define selling efforts including budgets and schedules.
contact center (or call center)
is where customer service representatives answer customer inquiries and solve problems, usually be email, chat, or phone. It is one of the best assets a customer-driven organization can have because maintaining a high level of customer support is critical to obtaining and retaining customers. Services include: 1) automatic call distribution, 2) interactive voice response (IVR), and 3) predictive dialing.
web-based self-service systems
allow customers to use the web to find answers to their questions or solutions to their problems. Example: FedEx lets you electronically track packages. 'Click-to-talk' functions allow customers to click on a button and talk with a representative via the Internet.
call scripting systems
gather product details and issue resolution information that can be automatically generated into a script for the representative to read to the customer. These systems even provide questions the representatives can ask the customer to troubleshoot the problem and find a resolution.
this type of CRM works by using business intelligence to identify patterns in product sales and customer behaviors. These tools can slice-and-dice vast amounts of information to create custom views of customers, products, and market segments highlighting opportunities for cross-selling and up-selling.
occurs when a website has stored enough data about a person's likes and dislikes to fashion offers more likely appeal to that person. Many marketers use CRM to personalize customer communications and decide which customers are worth pursuing.
analytical CRM examples
: 1) find new profitable customers, 2) exceed customer expectations, 3) discover the activities the firm performs the best, 4) eliminate competition, and 5) caring about the customers.
using these metrics to track and monitor performance is the best practice for many companies. Include: 1) sales metrics - number of new customers, number of sales calls. 2) customer service metrics - cases closed, average time to resolution. 3) marketing metrics - new customer retention rates, number of new leads by product.
supplier relationship management (SRM)
focuses on keeping suppliers satisfied by evaluating and categorizing suppliers for different projects. These applications help companies analyze suppliers based on a number of key variables including prices, inventory availability, and business focus or strategies. It can then determine the best supplier to collaborate with and develop strong relationships with to streamline processes, outsource services, and provide products the firms could not offer alone.
partner relationship management (PRM)
discovers optimal sales channels by selecting the right partners and identifying mutual customers. This system offers real-time sales channel information about such things as inventory availability, pricing strategies, and shipping information, allowing a company to expand its market by offering specialized products and services.
employee relationship management (ERM)
provides web-based self-service tools that streamline and automate the human resource department. Employees are the backbone of an enterprise and the communication channel to customers, partners, and suppliers. Their relationships with the company is far more complex and long-lasting than the relationship with customers.
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system so employees can make decisions by viewing enterprisewide information about all business operations.
core ERP components
the three most common core ERP components focusing on internal operations are: 1) accounting and finance, 2) production and materials management, and 3) human resources.
extended ERP components
meet the organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations. Many are internet-enabled and require interaction with customers, suppliers, and business partners outside the organization. The four most common are: 1) business intelligence, 2) customer relationship management, 3) supply chain management, and 4) Ebusiness.
a management system, as well as a measurement system, that a firm uses to translate business strategies into executable tasks. It provides feedback for both internal and external business processes, allowing continuous improvement. Uses four perspectives to monitor an organization: 1) the learning and growth perspective, 2) the internal business process perspective, 3) the customer perspective, and 4) the financial perspective.
data type; used to store textual or character information. Any character or number can be entered into this type of field. You should store any data that will never be used in calculations, such as a Social Security number, as text, not a number. There is an upper limit of 255 characters that can be stored in a Text field. Example: Names, addresses.
data type; used to capture free text. Can store up to 1 GB of characters, of which you can display 65,535 characters in a control on a form or report. This is a good data type to use if you need more than 255 characters in one field. Examples: Comments
data type; a numeric value that is used for units of currency. It follows the regional settings preset in Windows to determine what the default currency should be. In the United States, the data is displayed with a dollar sign and two decimal places. Examples: salary
indicates the maximum length of a data field. Whenever you use a text data type, you should determine the maximum number of text characters that can exist.That number would then be the ___ ___.
provides a way to consistently enter data called ___ ___. For example, phone numbers can be typed (555) 555-5555. It defines a consistent template and provides the punctuation. Access also has a wizard that creates automatic masks for Social Security numbers, zip codes, passwords, extensions, dates, and times. You can also create your own custom masks. Can affect how data is stored.
In a table design, you can define a ___ field property that customizes how data is displayed and printed in tables, queries, reports, and forms. ___ tells Access how data is to be displayed. It does not effect the way that the data is stored. For example, you can specify that currency fields are displayed in dollars (e.g. $1,234.56) in American databases or in Euros.
is a condition you apply temporarily to a table or query. All records that do not match the ___ criteria are hidden until the filter is removed or the table is closed and reopened. A ___ is a simple technique to quickly reduce a large amount of data to a much smaller subset of data. You can choose to save a table with the ___ applied so when you open the table later it will still be available.
a ____ character is used as a placeholder for an unknown part of a value or to match a certain pattern in a value. It can replace a single character or multiple characters and text or numbers. Examples: *, #, ?, [ ], !, -
used to compare text values using wildcards (LIKE), to determine whether values are between a range of values (BETWEEN), or to determine if a value is found within a set of values (IN)
when you create a query, you can select criteria for one field or for multiple fields. If you use multiple criteria, then you must also use ___ ___ to combine these criteria. These are operators that allow you to combine two or more criteria. For example, if you want a record selected when both criteria are met, then you would use the AND logical operator, but if you want a record selected if only one of the criteria is met, then you would use the OR operator. For an even more advanced query, you can combine the AND and the OR operators.
these compare the values in a table or another query to the criteria value you set up in a query. ____ ____ are generally used with numbers and dates to find a range or a specific value. 'Equal to' and 'Not equal to' can be used with text to find an exact match to criteria. Examples: =, <=, <> (not equal to), etc.
for a field to be used in a query, it must be added to the query grid. If you just want to use the field to define criteria but do not want to see the results of that field in the query, it cannot be removed from the query grid, but it can be hidden from the results.This is possible by using the Show check box in the query design grid.
perform arithmetic operations, such as calculating averages and totals. on records displayed in a table or query. An ____ ____ can be used in Datasheet view by adding a total row to a table, or it can be used in a query on records that meet certain criteria. Can be used in queries to perform calculations on selected fields and records. One advantage to using these functions in queries, rather than just a total row, is that you can group criteria and then calculate the functions for a group of records. By default, the query design does not have a place to enter these functions, so the total row must be added from the Design tab.
common aggregate functions
there are a number of different aggregate functions that can be used depending on the type of calculation you want to perform. These statistical functions are available: Sum, Average, Count, Minimum, and Maximum
in addition to statistical calculations using aggregate functions, you can also perform an arithmetic calculation within a row of a query to create a new field. The result of the calculated field is displayed each time you run the query. However, this new field is not part of any other table. A ____ ___ can be added to a query using the fields in the query or even fields in another table or query in the database. The calculation can use a combination of numbers and field values, which allows you flexibility in how you perform the calculation. For example, you can multiply a product price stored in the table by a sales tax rate that you enter into the calculation. These fields are built using the tool 'Expression Builder'
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