If a person exhibits persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions, they have a(n) _____.
An integrated understanding of psychological disorders in terms of stressful memories, evolutionary processes, and gender roles is most clearly provided by:
In a study examining the biasing power of _____ labels, researchers went to mental hospital admissions offices and complained of "hearing voices" saying "empty," "hollow," and "thud." This was the only complaint they reported and they displayed no other symptoms. They were admitted and released an average of 19 days later.
Deviant and stressful behaviors are more likely to be considered disordered when also judged to be a harmful _____.
At one time, disordered people were simply warehoused in asylums. Asylums have been replaced with psychiatric hospitals, where attempts are made to diagnose and cure people suffering from psychological disorders. This best illustrates one of the beneficial consequences of:
Dr. Sorenson meets with a client who displays both psychological problems and problems functioning in her daily life. Which of the five axes of the DSM-IV-TR would Dr. Sorenson use to classify this client's personal function?
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder affects approximately _____ percent of children and the appearance of the disorder occurs by age _____.
John is a patient who reports significant anger, hostility, and overall disregard for people. He has been diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. His personality disorder belongs on which Axis?
Symptoms that can be incorrectly perceived as those of a heart attack are most characteristic of _____ disorder.
People who suffer from _____ are so preoccupied by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions that they are unable to function in their daily lives.
Post-traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by symptoms that include haunting memories and nightmares, jumpy anxiety, social _____, and insomnia.
_____ proposed that, beginning in childhood, people repress intolerable impulses, ideas, and feelings, and that this submerged mental energy sometimes produces mystifying symptoms, such as anxiety.
Lenore is continually tense and plagued by muscle tension, sleeplessness, and an inability to concentrate. Lenore most likely suffers from _____ disorder
Seven months ago, Quinn witnessed the gruesome murder of a close friend. Although many people expected him to suffer from this, he seemed to have the opposite reaction. He had a greater appreciation for life, his relationships with his family became more meaningful, and he became more involved in his faith. Quinn's response is known as:
post traumatic growth
This occurs, for example, when a person who is attacked by a fierce dog later develops a fear of all dogs.
Walter has an intense fear of speaking in public. Because he can only engage in one-on-one discussions, he has been passed over for promotions. He may be suffering from _____ phobia.
Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when she approaches any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear is the result of a traumatic childhood boating accident. The therapist's suggestion reflects a _____ perspective.
_____ is to anxiety as a hurricane is to a windy day.
Susan has been diagnosed with panic disorder and refuses to leave her home without her husband. She fears any situation in which she cannot escape or find help when a panic attack would strike. Susan suffers from panic disorder as well as _____.
A sudden loss of _____ is one symptom of a dissociative disorder.
An effective way to break the cycle of depression is to explain _____ events in terms that are specific and temporary.
Jeremy often misinterprets normal bodily sensations such as hunger pangs as symptoms of serious illnesses such as stomach cancer. His experience is most indicative of _____.
Major depressive disorder is a mood disorder characterized by at least _____signs of depression.
The brains of people who suffer from depression tend to have low levels of:
In terms of pervasiveness, _____ is to psychological disorders as the common cold is to mild physical illnesses.
An overabundance of the neurotransmitter _____ is most likely to be associated with a manic episode.
A major characteristic of schizophrenia is inappropriate emotion. For example, some people suffering from schizophrenia exhibit _____, often described as a "zombielike" state of apparent apathy.
Thirty-year-old Nellie has been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Her selective attention is deficient, she is unable to ignore irrelevant stimuli, and she often gives her undivided attention to minute stimuli (e.g., a spotlight shining in a window). This type of attention problem is thought to contribute to:
Modern brain-scanning techniques reveal that some people with chronic schizophrenia have abnormal activity in the _____ lobes.
Frank was seen laughing inappropriately in the library as if he was responding to internal stimuli. On the bus home, he was crying uncontrollably and suddenly became angered when a fellow passenger offered him a tissue. His excess of inappropriate behavior is known as:
Mimi works in a hospital psychiatric unit. She cares for a patient with schizophrenia who often stands motionless in a corner for several hours. This _____ usually ends abruptly and the patient becomes quite agitated.
While researchers have discovered that there are an excessive number of receptor sites for _____ in schizophrenia patient's brains, it is not the only neurotransmitter involved in schizophrenia.
Victor's mother is frustrated because she cannot get Victor involved in any activities. Although he has been diagnosed with schizophrenia, she still expects him to do things around the house. But, most days he sits in a chair, with no expression on his face. This type of absence of appropriate behavior is known as:
One cluster of personality disorders expresses eccentric behavior, and includes _____ personality disorder. People with this personality disorder can be described as having an emotionless disengagement.
One cluster of personality disorders exhibits dramatic or impulsive behaviors. For example, someone with _____ personality disorder displays shallow, attention-getting emotions and goes to great lengths to gain praise.
Thomas was called into his boss's office last week for once again overstepping the boundaries of his job position. Thomas had told the director of research that he was the one running the show and it would only be a matter of time before he was in his boss's position. When confronted, Thomas told his boss that it was true and no one seems to understand that he is the one in charge. Thomas would be considered to have a(n) _____ personality disorder.
Personality disorders can be classified into three clusters. One cluster expresses anxiety, such as that exhibited in _____ personality disorder. People with this personality disorder are so fearful of rejection that it predisposes them to withdraw from society.
What are the three factors of being "abnormal"?
statistical infrequency (deviant) personal discomfort (distressful) impairment (dysfunctional)
what model is widely accepted in pyschopathology?
what are categorical approaches to diagnosis?
yes/no categories to answer questions
what are dimensional approaches to diagnosis?
everyone falls somewhere on the scale continuous phenomena
what is a diathesis?
(nature) predisposition or susceptibility to disorder
what is a comorbidity?
simultaneous occurence of more than one disorder in same person
what is generalized anxiety disorder?
a free floating anxiety that is nonspecific
what neurotransmitters play a role in anxiety disorders?
GABA and Serotonin
as serotonin goes down depression goes ___?
what are seligman's negative attributional styles?
internal, global, stable
what are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought,
what are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
behavioral deficits flat affect=shows no emotion alogia=grunt/incomprehensible word avolition=lack of motivation
which symptoms respond better to medication?
what is paranoid schizophrenia?
one or more related delusional beliefs connected to hallucinations prognosis=better, fixed w meds
what is disorganzied schizophrenia?
walk around argue with light poles, collect random things, bizare/extreme emotions prognosis=institutionalized
what is catatonic schizophrenia?
back and forth pacing/no motor activity
what is undifferentiated schizophrenia?
not in touch with reality, but doesnt fit into category early stage of the others
what is residual schizophrenia?
history of schiz but no major symptoms, doesn't fit
what is a structural abnormailites in the brain for schizos?
enlarged ventricles and smaller thalamus
what is subtance abuse?
negative consequences related to substance use at work/school/home
what is ADHD?
inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity
what is the onset of autism?
prior to 3
what are the three impairments of autism?
social interaction (unaware of others/oblivious) communication (verbal and nonverbal/no usable language/no eye contact) restricted repertoire of activity/interests (comfort zones)
_____ psychologists explore how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
He proposed cognitive dissonance theory.
According to the _____, people explain behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
____are feelings that are based on beliefs. They predispose people to react in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
People often commit the fundamental attribution error, especially when they explain:
the behavior of strangers who have been observed in only one type of situation.
Once people have agreed to a small request, they have a tendency to comply with a larger request. This is known as the _____ phenomenon.
foot in the door
In _____ cultures people are more likely to commit the fundamental attribution error while in _____ cultures they are less likely to commit the fundamental attribution error.
Early one Halloween evening, Bart's friends asked him to join them in smashing their neighbors' decorative pumpkins. He complied. Later, he was surprised by his own failure to resist them when they asked him to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates the:
foot in the door
This afternoon, Mary's boss wants to meet with her. She is sure it is about the customers who complained about her yesterday. The best-case scenario would be for Mary's boss to decide that her behavior was the result of:
a situational attribution
We are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error if:
we have a long term friendship with the person we are observing
_____ result(s) from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
normative social influence
A person in a group tends to exert MORE effort when he is individually accountable than when he is working with others toward a common goal. This is known as:
In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride's family, simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of _____ social influence
In the Asch conformity experiments, researchers find that conformity to the group increases when
group is animous
At her health club, Bonnie pedals an exercise bike much faster when other patrons are using nearby equipment. This best illustrates _____.
A group of racially prejudiced high school students discussed racial issues. During the conversation, their attitudes became even more prejudiced. This best illustrates _____.
During a riot, a large sporting event, or mob action, we lose self-awareness and self-restraint. This is known as:
_____ is revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
____ is (are) shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
After the events of 9/11, some Americans began boycotting Arab-American stores and lashing out at any Middle-Eastern person they saw. This behavior is best explained in terms of:
Aggressive behavior in males has been linked with low levels of _____ and high levels of _____.
People's _____ is a good predictor of their frequency of dating.
This new neighborhood is full of drug addicts living in run down houses in horrible condition. He often sees them struggling to find food on the street and shivering through the cold winter. When his friend asks him if he feels bad seeing these people suffer he replies, "Good people don't end up that way, so I don't feel bad for them." His attitude best illustrates:
just world phenomenon
Tameka volunteers twice a week at a homeless shelter along with members of her church youth group. They tutor and read to young elementary age children who are housed in the shelter. Tameka volunteerism is an example of the _____.
social responsibility norm
Muzafer Sherif (1966) placed 22 Oklahoma City boys in two separate areas of a Boy Scout camp. He then put the two groups through a series of competitive activities, with prizes going to the victors. Before long, each group became intensely proud of itself and hostile to the other group. Sherif found that the best way to reduce the conflict was to create _____.
Shortly after learning he did not make it onto his high school football team, Alex vandalized the team's locker room and broke several of the school's windows. His behavior is best explained in terms of the _____ principle.
John and Julie have been married for 10 years. Their love is best explained as _____ love.
You decide that your free time over the weekend is not as important as the good feelings and joy of giving back to the community so you decide to volunteer at the Special Olympics. This illustrates the:
social exchange theory
Tim enjoys watching violent action movies and television shows on most evenings as well as listening to music with violent lyrics. When faced with real-life conflict he tends to respond with aggressive behavior because he believes that he needs to "act like a man." According to social psychologists he has learned _____, which are mental tapes for how to act due to this exposure to media violence.
Kelly is a Republican and Carlos is a Democrat. Both believe that the members of their own political party are more fair-minded and trustworthy than members of any other party. This belief best illustrate _____.
Although the leaders of two enemy nations admit to a buildup of their own military forces, each sees the actions of the other country as unreasonable and motivated by evil intentions. This situation best illustrates:
mere image perceptions
Laurie and Jim have been married for 20 years. When asked, Laurie indicated that what she most appreciated about their marriage was that they both freely give and receive affection and that they share decision-making and household responsibilities. Laurie's description is an example of: