72 terms

Chapter 5 - Crisis in the Colonies

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George Washington
built Fort Necessity trying to carry out his orders
Joseph Brant
Mohawk Chief - Thayendanegea
French and Indian War
conflict over the Ohio River Valley
Benjamin Franklin
drafted the Albany Plan of Union
Albany Plan of Union
the first attempt to create one government for the 13 colonies
Edward Braddock
led an attack on Fort Duquesne in 1755
William Pitt
became the head of the British Government in 1757
Plains of Abraham
near the city of Quebec
Treaty of Paris
signed in 1763, this marked the end of French power in North America
French forts
These blocked the English colonies from expanding to the west...
Algonquins and Hurons
allies of the French
Iroquois
allies of the British
inexperienced military leadership
What contributed to early British defeats in the French and Indian War?
hunting grounds
French fur traders did not ruin Native American...
France
Which country posed the most serious threat to the English colonies in 1750?
George Washington
The opening shots of the French and Indian War were fired by...
Fort Duquesne
Washington was supposed to build a fort at the site of the French Fort...
colonial legislatures
Who refused to accept the Albany Plan of Union?
He sent his best generals to fight for the colonies and he invested money in winning the war.
What did William Pitt do when he became head of the British government?
Quebec
Which city was key in resupplying French forts farther up the St. Lawrence River?
the Ohio River Valley
What region linked French settlements in Canada with those along the Mississippi River?
the fall of New France in the French and Indian War
The capture of Quebec led to...
by climbing a steep cliff at night
How were the British troops able to surprise the French at Quebec?
the British
Who won the French and Indian War?
True
Molly and Joseph Brant were Native Americans who were valuable allies for the English.
The British offered lower prices for trade goods to try to win the Natives to their side.
How did the British try to win the Native Americans to their side?
All land in North America except two small islands in the St. Lawrence and some islands in the West Indies.
What did France give up in the Treaty of Paris?
Spain won all French lands west of the Mississippi River as well as New Orleans, but gave up Florida to the British.
What did Spain give up and what did it keep in the Treaty of Paris?
General Braddock
Who did not listen to George Washington's advice about strategy?
Pontiac's War
1763 - conflict between Native Americans and British over settlement of Indian lands in Great Lakes area
Proclamation of 1763
law forbidding English colonists to settlet west of Appalachian Mountains - purpose was to avoid conflicts with Native Americans in the Ohio Valley
They felt the colonies should help pay for the French and Indian War.
Why did Parliament want to tax the colonies after 1763?
Stamp Act
1765 law that placed new duties on legal documents, almanacs, playing cards, and dice
Petition
formal written request to someone in authority that is signed by a group of people
Boycott
to refuse to buy or use certain goods or services
Repeal
to cancel
Townshend Acts
laws passed in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
Writ of assistance
legal document that allowed British customs officials to inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason
Boston Massacre
1770 conflict in which five colonists were killed by British troops
Committee of Correspondence
letter writing campaign that became a major tool of protest in colonies
the Sugar Act
a tax passed on molasses
protested
When British officials tried to enforce the Stamp Act, the colonists __________.
the Magna Carta
The idea that people should not be taxed if they were not represented dated back in English law to this document.
nine
How many colonies sent delegates to the Stamp Act Congress?
the boycott
Which colonial strategy was the most effective against the British Parliament?
They felt the writs violated their rights as British citizens.
Why were the colonists so against the writs of assistance?
protests, boycotts, letter writing, mock hangings
What types of actions did the Sons of Liberty take?
boycotts, letter writing, writing plays that poked fun at the British soldiers, wearing homespun clothing
What types of actions did the Daughters of Liberty take?
John Adams
Who defended the soldiers who killed colonists in the Boston Massacre?
the tax on tea
Which tax remained in place as a reminder that Parliament claimed the right to directly tax the colonies?
Samuel Maverick and Crispus Attucks
What were the names of some of the colonists who died in the Boston Massacre?
the Quartering Act
What law required colonists to house British soldiers against their will?
Paul Revere
Who engraved a picture of what the Boston Massacre might have looked like in order to spur public opinion against the British?
Tea Act
enacted to help the British East India Company survive - allowed them to sell tea directly to the colonists
Samuel Adams
a founder of the Sons of Liberty - part of the Boston Tea Party
Boston Tea Party
members of the Sons of Liberty, dressed as Native Americans, dumped cargo loads of tea into Boston Harbor to protest the Tea Act
Intolerable Acts
included the Coercive Acts and the Quebec Act - angered the colonists - led to the First Continental Congress
Quebec Act
set up a government for Canada giving religious freedom for French Catholics - allowed settlement west of the line set in the Proclamation of 1763
minutemen
ordinary people prepared to fight in an emergency at a "moment's notice"
Lexington and Concord
first battles of the Revolutionary War - British soldiers were trying to capture arms and ammunition stored at Concord
milita
an army of citizens who serve as soldiers during an emergency
the Boston Tea Party
John Adams called this a turning point in history
the port of Boston
What port was closed by the Intolerable Acts?
town meeting
Under the Intolerable Acts towns could hold only one __________ per year. This was one of the measures used to punish Massachusetts after the Boston Tea Party.
Britain or Canada - not Massachusetts
Under the Intolerable Acts, customs officers charged with crimes could be tried in...
British soldiers
The Intolerable Acts forced citizens to house __________ in their midst.
the First Continental Congress
The meeting of delegates from 12 colonies in Philadelphia to discuss protest of the Intolerable Acts was called...
arsenal; colonists
As British troops left Boston with orders to capture the __________ at Concord, messengers alerted by a signal rode through the countryside warning the __________.
killed
at Lexington green, eight colonists were...
sharpshooters
As the British withdrew from Concord, patriot __________ fired on them.
True
True or False - The Tea Act actually made tea less expensive in the colonies
the Revolutionary War
The battles at Lexington and Concord were the first battles of...