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43 terms

Classification Review

Chapter 18 review
STUDY
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Describing and naming each species
First step in understanding and studying diversity
Many animals have multiple names;
different animals may share a common name;
some names are too long and descriptive
Problems with naming different species
Different scientists focused on different characteristics
It was hard to standardize descriptive scientific names because...
Dichotomous keys
Used to identify organisms;
consists of a series of paired statements or questions that describe alternative possible characteristics of an organism
Carolus Linneaus
developed a two-word naming system called binomial nomenclature
Two-part
In binomial nomenclature, each species is assigned to a ___ ____ scientific name
Italic
Scientific names written in ______
Capital letter,
Lowercase letter
In binomial nomenclature, first word begins with _______ ______, second word begins with _________ ______
Ursus maritimus
Scientific name of a polar bear
Genus
First part of scientific name according to binomial nomenclature;
a group of a similar species
Ursus
Genus which contains five species of bears
Unique to each species
Second part of scientific name according to binomial nomenclature is ... (not a term)
Species
group of individuals capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
Species name
Often a description of an important trait or the organism's habitat
maritimus
Refers to the sea;
polar bears often live on pack ice that floats in the sea
Similar
In a useful classification system, organisms in a particular group are more _______ to one another than they to organisms in other groups
Systematics
The science of naming and grouping organisms;
goal is to organize living things into groups that have biological meaning
Taxa
The groups produced by systematics
Hierarchy
Linnaeus also developed a classification system that formed a _________ or set of ordered ranks;
his original system had four levels
Species, genus, family, order, class, phylum, kingdom
Over time, Linnaeus's original classification system expanded to include seven hierarchical taxa: ...
Species and genus
Two smallest categories in Linnaeus's classification system
Camelus bactrianus
Scientific name of a camel with two humps;
second part was named came from an ancient country in Asia
Camelus
Genus which includes two different species of camels
Camelus dromedarius
Scientific name of a camel with one hump
Anatomical
In deciding how to place organisms into larger taxa, Linnaeus grouped species according to __________ similarities and differences
Llama
The South American _____ bears some resemblance to Bactrian camels and dromedaries
Lama
Llamas are placed in this genus;
they are not part of the Camelus genus because, although they resemble camels, they are more similar to other South American species than they are to European and Asian camels
Family
Several genera that share many similarities (like Lama and Camelus) are grouped into a larger category, the ______
Lama glama
Species name for llamas
Camelidea
Family name for Lama and Camelus
Order
Closely related families are grouped into the next highest rank
Class
Similar orders are grouped into the next largest rank
Artiodactyla
Order of hoofed animals with an even number of toes
Mammalia
Class which includes all animals that are warm-blooded, have body hair, and produce milk for their young
Phylum
Classes are grouped into the next largest rank which includes organisms that are different but share important characteristics
Chordata
The class Mammaliais placed in this Phylum along with other classes because all of the organisms share important body-plan features, among them a nerve chord along the back
Kingdom
The largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus's taxonomic categories
Animalia
All multicellular organisms are placed in this kingdom
Species
Members of a _______ determine which organisms belong to that _______ by deciding with whom they mate and produce fertile offspring
Carefully
Linnaeus was a good scientist who chose his characteristics _________
Classification schemes
Many of Linnaeus's groups are still valid under modern ______________ _______
Similarities and differences
Linnaeus grouped organisms according to
In ways that reflect how closely members of those groups are related to each other.
How do modern scientists try to assign species to large groups?