t/f Because of the coriolis effect, surface currents in the Northern Hemisphere flow to the left of the wind direction
Continents and basin topography often block continuous flow and help deflect the moving water in a circular pattern. The flow around the periphery of an ocean basin is called:
t/f In Ekman transport, the direction of the flow of water is 90 degrees to the right of the wind direction (in the northern hemisphere).
The Canary current in the North Atlantic is shallow, and broad and cold. What type of current is it?
Eastern Boundary Current
The Scilly Isles off the west coast of England have tropical plants as a result of...
The warm Gulf Stream that brings tropical warmth up from the equator in the Atlantic
Wind induced upward movement of water that brings deep, cold, nutrient rich water toward the surface is called:
Downwelling helps the deeper ocean with..
supply of dissolved gases and nutrients
assists in the distribution of living organisms
t/f Winds that blow steadily across the ocean that induces long sets of counter-rotating vortices (or cells) at the surface water is called Southern Oscillation.
False (Langimuir Circulation)
During major ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) events, sea level in the eastern Pacific.
Rises by as much as 20 centimeters
Because density is a function of water's temperature and salinity, the movement of water due to differences in density is called:
t/f The global pattern of deep circulation resembles a vast "conveyor belt" that carries surface water to the depths and back again
The wave you surf on in California may have come from the middle of the Pacific. What has been transmitted across the ocean basin?
t/f The vertical distance between a wave crest and the adjacent trough is the wavelength.
False (Wave height)
t/f A Wave that is moving through water deeper than one-half of the wavelength are known as deep water waves.
t/f The slowing and bending of waves as they approach the shore from an angle is called wave reflection.
False (Wave REFRACTION)
The two types of waves that are always or almost always deep water waves are ____________ and _____________.
capillary waves; wind waves.
The factors necessary to make a really large wind wave are _____________, ___________, and ___________.
wind strength, wind duration, and fetch
The abrupt bulge of water driven ashore by a tropical cyclone (hurricane) is called a ___________.
Which of these lists is arranged in order from smallest wavelength to longest wavelength?
capillary wave, wind wave, tsunami, tides
t/f Progressive waves and orbital waves involved movement of water particles until a depth of one quarter the wavelength.
A wind wave of 20-meter wavelength will act as a _____ if it is passing through water MORE than 10 meters deep.
A strong wind that blows continuously in one direction for almost three days will create the maximum wave size theoretically possible for a wind of specific strength, duration, and fetch.
Fully developed sea
_____ waves occur in the ocean at the base of the pycnocline, especially at the bottom edge of a steep thermocline.
t/f Often a dangerous consequence of Tsunamis is that the trough of the wave occurs first and subsequently attracts people to explore further offshore.
What, in December of 2004, was one of the worlds worst natural disasters on record, killing nearly 300,000 people in all.
The Sumatran Tsunami
The moon has a greater effect on the Earth's tides than the sun because
it is much closer to the Earth than is the sun
The central point, or node, for a tide in an ocean basin where little change in vertical height is masured is known as the:
In a region with semidiurnal tides, if a high tide occurs at midnight (12 AM), the next low tide will occur at
In a region with diurnal tides, if a high tide occurs at midnight (12 AM), the next high tide will occur at __________________.
12:50 AM the following day
A wave of water moving up a river, initiated by tidal action and normal resonances within a river estuary, is called ________________.
A tidal bore
t/f The tidal cycle is 24 hrs 50 minutes long because the moon rises 50 minutes later each day.
t/f True amphidromic systems do not develop in narrow basins because there is no space for rotation.
What organism uses the tides, specifically high spring tides, to time their breeding behaviors?
What is the relationship between the heights of tides and the amphidromic point?
Heights increase with distance from the amphidromic point
The east coast of the United States receives two high tides and two low tides of roughly the same heights per day. What kind of tidal pattern is this?
t/f Barrier islands are exposed sandbars parallel to the coast, form when sediments accumulate on submerged rises paralleling the shoreline.
A is the area where ocean meets the land and a is the larger zone affected by the processes that occur at that boundary.
What is the name for a relatively old coast that are steadily growing due to their sediment accumulation?
During the sand on a depositional beach accumulates and during the the sand erodes from the beach and is moved to an offshore location.
What is a factor that is instrumental in shaping an erosional coast?
Wind-driven grit abrasion
Dissolution of acids and bases
What is a more accurate term for the feeding relationship of organisms involving multiple organisms at each trophic level for a higher level organism to eat?
t/f Before nitrogen can be used by organisms to make proteins and nucleic acids, it must first be fixed into a usable form such as nitrates.
A salmon migrates from the ocean to freshwater rivers to spawn. Which of the following best describes what type of environment the salmon moves from and into?
Hypertonic to Hypotonic
Movement of a substance along a concentration gradient where substances move from higher concentration to lower concentration is called:
t/f Hydrothermal vent communities depend on chemosynthesis in order to capture energy and convert inorganic molecules into glucose molecules.
t/f On average, the ocean has a higher primary productivity at 150 gC/m2/year than land at 120gC/m2/yr.
Which of the following is NOT one of the four factors that influence primary production?
Which of the four factors that influence primary production are limiting in the oceanic environment?
A trophic pyramid describes who eats whom, and in general, from one level to the next, what percentage is transferred?
Why are phytoplankton critical for marine life?
They are large contribution to marine food webs
They generate massive amounts of atmospheric oxygen
They are able to bind billions of tons of carbon into carbohydrates
A highly biological productive ocean surface appears chalky due to the calcium carbonate cell walls. This is due to the successful bloom of what plankton ?
What is essential in the restoration of nonconservative nutrients and supports the continuation of photosynthetic productivity in the ocean?
What factor(s) limit primary productivity in the ocean?
Angle of the sun
What is true of compensation depth?
It is the depth at which carbohydrate and oxygen production equals the amount of consumption
It marks the bottom of the euphotic zone
t/f Approximately 55% of the sunlight energy absorbed by diatoms is converted into energy for carbohydrate chemical bonds.
t/f Coccolithophores are able to utilize more frequencies of light so they can be deeper in the euphotic zone and need less light.
Low, muddy coasts in tropical and some subtropical areas are often home to tangled masses of:
trees called mangroves