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Characteristics of Domain Eukarya

- unicellular (some Protists & Yeasts)
- colonial (some Protists)
- multicellular (most Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia)
- cell division by Mitosis
- various reproduction & recombination cycles
- various access to energy and carbon varying by Kingdom

Kingdoms within Domain Eukarya

- Kingdom Protista (least complex)
- Kingdom Fungi
- Kingdom Plantae
- Kingdom Animalia (most complex)

Kingdom Protista

- eukaryotes (cells with nuclei)
- live in moist surroundings
- unicellular or multicellular
- autotrophs, heterotrophs, or both
- some can move with cilia
- others are immobile

Animal-like Protists (Protozoans)

- unicellular
- Heterotrophs
- 4 groups based on movement
-- flagella
-- cilia
-- pseudopods
-- and the 'others'

Protists with Pseudopods (Sarcodinas)

- Pseudopods are also called false feet
- cell membrane pushes in one direction and cytoplasm flows to fill the bulge which allows protozoan to move and drags rest of cell behind it
- protozoan can form 2 pseudopods to surround and trap food
- then protozoa forms a food vacuole to break down food in cytoplasm

Protists with Pseudopods (Sarcodinas) continued

- reproduce by binary fission like bacteria
- contractile vacuole
- collects extra H2O and expels from cell
- thin membrane (uses osmosis to get nutrients)
- no definite shape
- an Amoeba

Protozoans with Cilia (Ciliates)

- hairlike structures
- help organisms move, get food and sense environment
- multicellular with two nuclei
- one nuclei controls all cell functions
- one nuclei is for reproduction
- reproduce by binary fission or conjugation

Protozoans with Cilia (Ciliates)

- oral groove lined with cilia and moves H2O containing food into food vacuole at end of oral groove
- food vacuole breaks down food and sends through cell
- anal pore sends out waste
- paramecium

Protozoans with Flagella (Flagellates)

- include dinoflagellates and zooflagellates (infectious to animals)
- use long, whiplike part called flagella to move
-usually live inside other organisms

Other Protozoans (Sporozoans)

- mainly parasitic
- feed on cells & body fluids of hosts
- like Plasmodium (Plasmodium causes malaria)
- have more than one host: mosquiots then human

Funguslike Protists

- like animals, are heterotrophs
- like platns, have cell walls
- reproduce by spores
-tiny cells that can grow into a new organism
- not in fungi kingdom because they can move at one point in life
- mildew (cross of plant & animal)

Plantlike Protists (Algae)

- autotrophs
- unicellular, very large
- contain different pigments so they come in different colors
- Euglena
-- special type of algae when there is no sunlight they become heterotrophs

Fungi Kingdom

- eukaryotes
- use spores to reproduce
- Heterotrophs that feed in similar way
- contain chitin in cell wall ("crunch" in bugs!)
- yeast, molds, and mushrooms

Fungi-Obtaining Food

- use a structure called hyphae to get their food
- except yeast which are unicellular
- Hyphae are threadlike tubes
- shape of fungi depend on how hyphae are used
- fungus grows hyphae into food
- hyphae secrete digestive chemicals to food
- after food is broken down, hyphae asorb it

Reproduction in Fungi

- produce thousands of spores with a protective covering
- carried by water or air
- spores land in a warm, moist place they grow
- when plenty of moisture exists, fungi reproduce asexually by releasing the spores
- when conditions are not good fungi reproduce sexually making new spores that are different from both parents

Yeast Reproduction

- since yeast is unicellular, they reproduce by budding
- a well fed cell grows from the body of a mother cell and breaks off from the mother

Threadlike (Classification of Fungi)

- produce spores in their threadlike hyphae
- bread mold

Sacs (Classification of Fungi)

- produce spores in structures that look like sacs

Club (Classification of Fungi)

- produce spores in structures that like look clubs
- mushrooms

Imperfect (Classification of Fungi)

- those that can not reproduce sexually
- Penicilin

Lichen - Symbiosis Example

- made up of two or three different organisms
- Fungus (K. Fungi)
- Algae (K. Protista)
-Cyanobacteria (K. Eubacteria)

Lichen - Symbiosis Example

- fungus form sthe visible portion of lichen inside of which and protected bu them are cells of an algae or cyanobacteria
-photosynthetic algae provide nutrients
- fungus obtains nutrients from the algae, the fungal tissue in turn provides shelter allowing algae to grow in harsh conditions such as rock where it would otherwise be destroyed
- lichen thrive in clean and unpollenated environments

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