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A hostile or negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their membership in that group.


A generalization about a group of people in which certain traits are assigned to virtually all members of the group, regardless of actual variation among members.


unjustified negative or harmful action toward a member of a group simply because of his or her membership in that group.

Out-group homogeneity

the perception that individuals in the out-group are more similar to each other (homogenous) than they really are, as well as more similar than the members of the in-group are.

illusory correlation

The tendency to see relationships or correlations, between events that are actually unrelated.

Ultimate Attribution Error

The tendency to make dis-positional attributions about an entire group of people.

Stereotype Threat

The apprehension experienced by members of a group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype.

Blaming the Victim

The tendency to blame individuals (make dis-positional attributions) for their victimization, typically motivated by a desire to see the world as a fair place.

Self-fulfilling prophecy

The case whereby people (1) have an expectation about what another person is like, which (2) influences how they act toward that person, which (3) causes that person to behave in a way consistent with people's original expectations.

Realistic conflict theory

The idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination.


The tendency for individuals, when frustrated or unhappy, to displace aggression onto groups that are disliked, visible, and relatively powerless.

Normative conformity

The tendency to go along with the group in order to fulfill the groups expectations and gain experience.

Modern racism

Outwardly acting unprejudiced while inwardly maintaining prejudiced attitudes.

Mutual interdependence

The situation that exists when two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other to accomplish a goal that is important to each of them.

jigsaw classroom

A classroom setting designed to reduce prejudice and raise the self-esteem of children by placing them in small, desegregated groups and making each child dependent on the other children in the group to learn the course material and do well in the class.

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