Theories are vital tools for developmental researchers because they
provide organizing frameworks for our observations of people.
he field of developmental science is considered to be __________ because investigators often are interested in the practical implications of their research.
When baby Brad gazes at his mother, she smiles at him, and then Brad gazes and smiles, too. This contingent responsiveness is an example of
Of all motor skills, ________ may play the greatest role in infant cognitive development.
Which of the following is true about infantile amnesia?
Most older children and adults cannot retrieve events that happened before age 3.
Baby Luigi retrieves his pacifier, which his mother has hidden behind a pillow. Baby Luigi has begun to master
Which of the following is true about make-believe play?
Make-believe is a major means through which children extend their cognitive skills and learn about important activities in their culture.
Human adults have especially elaborate ___________, which enable them to observe another's behavior while simulating the behavior in their own brains.
Some researchers claim that infants respond in kind to others' emotions through a fairly automatic process of
Although Justin spent his first 18 months in an orphanage, his adoptive mother believes that sensitive caregiving will help Justin overcome his early experiences. Justin's mother emphasizes the role of ____________ in development.
With the transition to toddlerhood, attraction to __________ declines and __________ improves.
novelty; sustained attention
Information-processing researchers focus on
many aspects of thinking, from attention, memory, and categorization skills to complex problem solving.
Younger students who divide information, values, and authority into right and wrong or good and bad engage in
According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is
industry versus inferiority.
To test for ________, Piaget asked children to arrange sticks of different lengths from shortest to longest.
When classmates are asked to rate each other's likeability, __________ children get many positive votes, whereas __________ children are seldom mentioned.
Threats to __________ health accelerate puberty, whereas threats to ___________ health delay it.
According to anthropologist Margaret Mead, _____________ is/are entirely responsible for the range of teenage experiences.
the social environment
Many homosexual adolescents and adults move through a three-phase sequence in coming out to themselves and others. Those three phases are
feeling different, confusion, and self-acceptance.
Adolescents who reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development
no longer require concrete things and events as objects of thought.
n making decisions, adolescents, more often than adults,
fall back on well-learned intuitive judgments.
According to Labouvie-Vief, adulthood involves moving from _______________ thought.
hypothetical to pragmatic
Emotional self-regulation refers to
the strategies children use to adjust their emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity
____________ is early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation.
The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions, is called
Piaget called children's self-directed utterances _________ speech, reflecting his belief that young children have difficulty taking the perspectives of others.
______________ refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of object remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.
With __________________, a woman is given hormones that stimulate the ripening of several ova. These are removed surgically and placed in a dish of nutrients, to which sperm are added.
in vitro fertilization
The Human Genome Project is an ambitious international research program aimed at
deciphering the chemical makeup of human genetic material.
Down syndrome most commonly results from
a failure of the twenty-first pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis.
During the decade of the twenties, there is a sharp rise in the extent to which people feel they
are personally in control of the events in their lives.
In the transformation of romantic involvements from passionate to companionate, __________ may be the aspect of love that determines whether a relationship survives.
The leading cause of unintentional injury to children in the United States is
motor vehicle accidents.
During middle childhood, child-invented games usually involve
simple physical skills and a sizable element of luck.
_________ aggression in verbal and ________ forms tends to rise over early and middle childhood.