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____ is a social engineering practice in which a person attempts to glean access or authentication information by posing as someone who needs that information.


In a ____ attack, a person redirects or captures secure transmissions as they occur.

Port scanner

____ software searches a node for open ports

Transmission and hardware

A router that is not configured to drop packets that match certain suspicious characteristics is an example of a risk associated with ____.

Protocols and software

An NOS that contains a "back door" is an example of a risk associated with ____.


A ____ attack occurs when an Internet chat user sends commands to a victim's machine that cause the screen to fill with garbage characters and requires the victim to terminate their chat session.


A ____ attack occurs when a system becomes unable to function because it has been deluged with data transmissions or otherwise disrupted.


A ____ main function is to examine packets and determine where to direct them based on their Network layer addressing information.


A ____ firewall is a router (or a computer installed with software that enables it to act as a router) that examines the header of every packet of data it receives to determine whether that type of packet is authorized to continue its destination.


A ____ attack occurs when a hacker uses programs that try a combination of a user ID and every word in a dictionary to gain access to the network.

Brute force

A ____ attack occurs when a hacker tries numerous possible character combinations to find the key that will decrypt encrypted data.

Key pair

The combination of a public key and a private key is known as a ____.

Digital certificate

A(n) ____ is a password-protected and encrypted file that holds an individual's identification information, including a public key.


The use of certificate authorities to associate public keys with certain users in known as ____.


____ is a public key encryption system that can verify the authenticity of an e-mail sender and encrypt e-mail data in transmission.


____ is a method of encrypting TCP/IP transmissions.

DNS spoofing

In ____, a hacker forges name server records to falsify his host's identity.


A VPN ____ authenticates VPN clients and establishes tunnels for VPN connections.


____ protocols are the rules that computers follow to accomplish authentication.

Authentication, authorization, and accounting

RADIUS and TACACS belong to a category of protocols known as AAA (____).

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