43 terms

Chapter 15 Evolution (Miller)

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fossils
______ shows strong evidence that organisms on Earth can change over time (supports theory of evolution)
relative age
Geologists determine a fossil's _________ ______ by referring to the geologic time scale and records of known fossils
absolute age
Geologists determine a fossil's _________ _____ through techniques like radiometric dating
fossil record inference
different organisms lived at different times
fossil record inference
today's organisms are different from those in the past
fossil record inference
fossils found in adjacent layers are more like each other than fossils found in deeper/higher levels
fossil record inference
when/where different organisms existed
transitional species
A species that differs in a gradual sequence of forms over time (ex. whale)
embryology
The study of how organisms develop is known as
DNA, RNA, proteins
What are the three biological molecules used to show common ancestry?
evolution
the development of new types of organisms from preexisting types of organisms over time
strata
rock layers
natural selection
a theory by Darwin that touches overproduction, genetic variation, struggle to survive, and differential reproduction
fitness
a measure of an individual's hereditary contribution to the next generation
adaptation
a trait that makes an individual successful in the environment
fossil
the remains/traces of an organism that died long ago
superposition
a principle made by Nicolaus Steno that if the rock strata at a location has not been disturbed, the lowest stratum was formed before the strata above it
relative age
a fossil's age compared to that of other fossils
absolute age
estimated time since the formation of a rock with techniques like radiometric dating
biogeography
the study of the locations of organisms around the world
homologous structures
similar anatomical features that occur among a group of organisms that originated in a shared ancestor (structures are similar in design, but can function differently)
analogous structure
anatomical features that are similar in function, but not in structure and do not derive from a shared ancestor
vestigial structure
structures that do not have a function, but do function in related organisms or in ancestral organisms
phylogeny
the relationship by ancestry among groups of organisms
convergent evolution
the process by which different species evolve similar traits
adaptive radiation
the pattern of divergence
artificial selection
occurs when a human breeder chooses individuals that will parent the next generation
coevolution
when two or more species have evolved adaptations to each other's influence
different; environments; ancestors
Convergent evolution occurs when two _______ species develop similar traits because they live in similar _______. The two species are thought to have evolved INDEPENDENTLY from each other from two ________.
analogous structures
_________ __________ are used as evidence of convergent evolution (ex. bird/insect)
related; environments
Divergent evolution occurs when two _______ species developed different traits because they live in different parts of the __________. The two species are thought to have evolved from ONE ancestor.
homologous structures
_________ _________ are used as evidence of divergent evolution (ex. Darwin's finches)
adaptive radiation
___________ ________ occurs when members of a population undergo divergent evolution until many areas of the environment are filled.
coevolution
___________ occurs when two different organisms evolve adaptations in response to each other (back and forth) (ex. flowers being pollinated by birds; prey/predator)
evolution
change in the gene pool over time
microevolution
(aka speciation) refers to small changes in a species or organisms
macroevolution
refers to big changes in a species or organisms; it can result in new species
small population (population shrinks); non random mating; mutations; gene flow; natural selection
List the processes in which evolution can occur
small population
Population can shrink; change can take over; Those who survive a process of natural selection will carry on their genes.
non random mating
If individuals choose a mate based on appearance or location, frequency can change. New populations can be made or populations can be decreased.
mutation
If a new gene is added, the frequency will change.
gene flow
If individuals emigrate or immigrate, frequency will change.
natural selection
Those who are better adapted are better suited to survive (most influential of all processes that can cause evolution to occur).