-help genetic relatives
-Animal research - warning relative when predator nears
-Most likely to help in high risk:
-Sibling > half-sibling >friend
-reciprocity - help because it increases chances we'll be helped when needed (both should survive)
-Animals helped with grooming - more likely to help groomer with food or in fights later
-empathy - understanding another's perspectives and feeling sympathy
-Cognitive component - perspective taking (put yourself in their shoes)
-Emotional component - concern, compassion for other
-Older belief that only humans can develop empathy
-New research on 14-18 month old showing and helping strangers
-Helped pick up pen or reach something out of adult's reach
-But not if adult deliberately threw pen or had already reached goal
-Too young to understand reciprocity norm or expect rewards
-Natural tendency to help others solve problems
Franz de Waal
-Monkeys with partner can choose 'selfish' reward or 'prosocial' (shared) reward
-Note in video when they choose selfish or prosocial rewards
Helping or not helping is a function of emotional arousal and analysis of the costs and rewards of helping. When you evaluate whether or not to help remember that long term rewards generally outweigh short term costs.
-Social exchange - focus on rewards (material or psychological)
-We help when rewards outweigh costs
-What are possible rewards?
-A. well-being - link between volunteer work and better mental health
-B. following social norms - doing what is 'right'
-Related question of whether this is really selfish?
-Altruism - helping with no concern for self and no rewards
-Egoistic - help but motivated by selfish concerns
-Will gain boost in self-esteem
Penner's research on volunteering
Penner's research - possible theories:
-1. Modeling - media focuses attention on heroes, we model their behavior
-2. Threat to community - threat to US, increased sense of community - helping community
-3. Just-world theory - our belief that world is fair is shattered, work to rebuild in a just world
-4. Terror management theory - disasters remind us of our mortality - creates anxiety. Help others to reduce anxiety.
-5. Negative state relief - watching others suffer makes us sad - help to change mood to positive
Bystander Effect (Latane and Darley's research)
-Confederate appears to have seizure while participant listens
-...either alone, with 1 other participant, or 4 others
-Larger the group - less likely and slower to help
-In 6-person group 38% never acted
-Diffusion of responsibility - assume others will intervene, avoid personal responsibility
-Contributes to bystander effect
-Obstacles to help in these situations?
-1. Noticing - problem may not be obvious
-2. Interpreting - the event and/or the relationship of people involved
-May not be sure if there is an emergency (drunk or hurt?)
-Assume attacker and victim are partners and don't intervene
Kitty Genovese example
-Stabbed and sexually assaulted her apt.
-At least 38 neighbors heard/saw, no one called the police
-The attacker left, came back, killed her = 45 min attack
-How did neighbors react?
-Some claimed they assumed others would call the police
-Bystander effect: more bystanders - less likely victim gets help
-Shotland's research on intervening in male-female assaults
-"I don't know you" vs. 'don't know why I married you..."
-3x more likely to intervene if think they're strangers
-The role of pluralistic ignorance - look to others in crowd for cues
-But they are equally unsure
-3. Responsibility - take action
-Diffusion of responsibility most likely if we're anonymous
-(Remember the 'deindiviuation' effet?)
-Those in helping occupations are the exception
-4. Deciding how to help and helping - direct or indirect
-May be concerned about how others in audience will view us
-Other situational influences on helping:
-Rural/urban areas: larger cities and greater density - less likely to get help
-Culture - some with greater concern for others' well-being
-Collectivists more likely to help ingroup members, but not necessarily outgroup