Penner's research - possible theories:
-1. Modeling - media focuses attention on heroes, we model their behavior
-2. Threat to community - threat to US, increased sense of community - helping community
-3. Just-world theory - our belief that world is fair is shattered, work to rebuild in a just world
-4. Terror management theory - disasters remind us of our mortality - creates anxiety. Help others to reduce anxiety.
-5. Negative state relief - watching others suffer makes us sad - help to change mood to positive