How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

194 terms

Chapter 4 Muscular System ALL

STUDY
PLAY
muscul/o
muscle
my/o
muscle
myos/o
muscle
fasci/o
fascia
ten/o
tendon
tend/o
tendon
tendin/o
tendon
bi-
two
-cele
hernia
dys-
bad
fasci/o
fascia
fibr/o
fibrous connective tissue
-ia
condition
-ic
pertaining to
kines/o
movement
kinesi/o
movement
-plegia
paralysis
-rrhexis
rupture
tax/o
coordination
ton/o
muscle tension or tone
tri-
three
asthenia
weakness
epi-
on
condyl/o
condyle (rounded surface at the end of a bone)
electro/o
electricity
-plegia
paralysis
cardi/o
heart
quadr/i
four
hemi-
half
-paresis
partial paralysis
-plasty
surgical repair
-rrhaphy
surgical suturing
-otomy
surgical incision
-ectomy
surgical removal
-lysis
destruction
-desis
bind together
-penia
deficiency
duct
to lead
-ion
action
ad-
toward
ab-
away from
ex-
away from
-dynia
pain
-ceps
head
poly-
many
sarc/o
flesh
a-
without
clon/o
to move violently
exercise physiologist
specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness
neurologist
physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function
physiatrist
physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehab with the focus on restoring function
rheumatologist
physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues
sports medicine physician
specializes in treating sports-related injuries of the bones, joints, and muscles
fasciitis
inflammation of a fascia
fibromyalgia syndrome
debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain
tenodynia
pain in a tendon
tendinitis
inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint
chronic fatigue syndrome
disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems, they are always tired
adhesion
band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally
atrophy
weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures
myalgia
tenderness or pain in the muscles
myocele
herniation (protrusion) of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it
myolysis
degeneration of muscle tissue
myomalacia
abnormal softening of muscle tissue
myorrhexis
rupture or tearing of a muscle
polymyositis
muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body
sarcopenia
loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging
muscle tone
the state of balanced muscle tension (contraction and relaxation) that makes normal, posture, coordination, and movement possible
atonic
lacking normal muscle tone or strength
dystonia
condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement
hypertonia
condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles
hypotonia
condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles
myotonia
neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction
ataxia
the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement
dystaxia
mild form of ataxia
contracture
permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues
intermittent claudication
pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest
spasm
sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscle
cramp
localized muscle spasm named for its cause
spasmodic torticollis
stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side
bradykinesia
extreme slowness in movement
dyskinesia
distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as in a tic or spasm
hyperkinesia
abnormally increased muscle function or activity
hypokinesia
abnormally decreased muscle function or activity
myoclonus
sudden involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles
nocturnal myoclonus
jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep
singultus
myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm
myasthenia gravis
chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles
muscular dystrophy
describes a group of more than 30 genetic disease that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement, without affecting the nervous system
duchenne muscular dystrophy
most common form of muscular dystrophy, affects boys between 3 - 5 years
becker muscular dystrophy
very similar to but less severe than duchenne muscular dystrophy
repetitive stress disorders
variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motion performed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation such as sports
compartment syndrome
involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles
overuse injuries
minor tissue injuries that have not been given time to heal
overuse tendinitis
inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint
stress fractures
considered overuse injuries
myofascial pain syndrome
chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body
trigger points
tender areas that most commonly develop where the fascia comes into contact with a muscle
referred pain
pain that originates in one area of the body but is felt in another
impingement syndrome
occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint
rotator cuff tendinitis
an inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff
ruptured rotator cuff
develops when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or if the overuse continues
carpal tunnel syndrome
symptoms occur when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen
carpal tunnel release
surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel or cutting of the carpal ligament to relieve nerve pressure
ganglion cyst
harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist
epicondylitis
inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow
heel spur
calcium deposit in the plantar fascia near its attachment to the calcaneus (heel) bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis
plantar fasciitis
an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot
sprain
an injury to a joint such as ankle, knee or wrist that usually involves a stretched or torn ligament
shin splint
painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia (shin bone)
hamstring injury
can be a strain or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles that straighten the hip and bend the knee
achilles tendinitis
a painful inflammation of the achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon
spinal cord injury
determined by the level of the vertebra closest to the injury
paralysis
the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply
myoparesis
weakness or slight muscular paralysis
hemiparesis
slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body
hemiplegia
total paralysis affecting only one side of the body
paraplegia
is the paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four extremities
cardioplegia
paralysis of heart muscle
deep tendon reflexes
tested with a reflex hammer that is used to strike a tendon
range of motion testing
a diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength
electromyography
diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation
electroneuromyography
diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle
antispasmodic
administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestine, or bladder
skeletal muscle relaxant
administered to relax certain muscles and to relive the stiffness, pain and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries
neuromuscular blocker
drug that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles
ergonomics
study of the human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment
occupational therapy
consists of activities to promote recovery and rehab to assist patients in normalizing their ability to perform the activities of daily living
physical therapy
treatment to prevent disability or to restore functioning through the use of exercise, heat, massage, and other methods to improve circulation, flexibility, and muscular strength
myofascial release
specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease pain of disorders like fibromyalgia
therapeutic ultrasound
utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep with muscle tissue
rest, ice, compression, and elevation
R.I.C.E
fasciotomy
surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure
fascioplasty
the surgical repair of fascia
tenodesis
surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone
tenolysis
release of a tendon from adhesions
tenectomy
surgical resection of a portion of a tendon or tendon sheath
tenoplasty
surgical repair of a tendon
tenorrhaphy
surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon
tenotomy
surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by the abnormal shortening of a muscle, such as strabismus
myectomy
surgical excision of a portion of a muscle
myoplasty
surgical repair of a muscle
myorrhaphy
surgical suturing of a muscle wound
myotomy
surgical incision into a muscle
muscle fibers
cells that make up the muscles
fascia
sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles or groups of muscles
myofascial
pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia
tendon
narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone
skeletal muscles
are attached to the bone of the skeleton and make body movements possible
smooth muscle
located in the walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading from glands
myocardial muscles
form the muscular walls of the heart
muscle innervation
the stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve
neuromuscular
pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle
contraction
tightening of a muscle
relaxation
when a muscle returns to its original form
abduction
movement of a limb away from the midline of the body
adduction
movement of a limb toward the midline of the body
flexion
decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint
extension
increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening of a limb
hyperextension
overextension of a limb or body part beyond its normal limit
elevation
act of raising or lifting a body part like raising the ribs when breathing in
levator
muscle that raises a body part
depression
act of lowering a body part like lowering the ribs when breathing out
depressor
muscle that lowers a body part
rotation
circular movement around an axis such as the shoulder joint
axis
imaginary line that runs lengthwise through the center of the body
circumduction
circular movement of a limb at the far end
rotator muscle
turns a body part on its axis
rotator cuff
group of muscles and their tendons that hold the head of the humerus securely in place as it rotates within the shoulder joint
supination
the act of rotating the arm or the leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of root is turned forward or upward
pronation
act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward
dorsiflexion
movement that bends the foot upward at the ankle
plantar flexion
movement that bends the foot downward at the ankle
plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot
origin
the less movable attachment the place where the muscle begins
insertion
the more movable attachment the place where the muscle ends by attaching to a bone or tendon
sternocleidomastoid
helps bend the neck and rotate the head
flexor and extensor carpi muscles
pair of muscles that make flexion (bending) and extension (straightening) of the wrist possible
pectoralis major
thick fan shaped muscle situation on the front chest wall
pectoral
relating to the chest
lateralis
toward the side
medialis
toward the midline
external or superficial
near the surface
internal
deeper location
oblique
slanted or at an angle
rectus
straight in alignment with the vertical axis of the body
sphincter
ring-like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway
transverse
in a crosswise direction
biceps brachii
formed from two divisions
triceps brachii
formed from three divisions
gluteus maximus
largest muscle of the buttock
deltoid muscle
shaped like an inverted triangle and forms the muscular cap of the shoulder
hamstring group
located at the back of the upper leg and consists of three separate muscles