61 terms

SOCA 105

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Anthropology
Study of human species and its immediate ancestors.
Holistic Field
Studying the whole of the human condition - past, present and future; biology, society, language, and culture.
Culture
Traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that form and guide the beliefs and behavior of the people exposed to them.
When change occurred for humans?
Accelerated about 10,000 years ago.
Food Production
Economy based on plant cultivation and/or animal domestication.
What separates humans and animals in adaptation?
Humans adapt culturally - technologically.
T/F: All animals can adapt culturally.
False
General Anthropology
Academic discipline of anthropology, also known as "four-field" anthropology.
4 Sub Fields of Anthrology
Sociocultural (cultural), archaeological (reconstruct past and find what's left), biological (physical - genetics, DNA), and linguistic (connected to culture).
Biological - Physical Anthropology Emphasis
Primatology - primate studies to see what they do to live that relates to us.
Cultural Anthropology
Describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities and differences.
Ethnography
Fieldwork in a particular culture; provides an account of that community, society, or culture - finds out the "why".
Ethnology
Comparative, cross-cultural study of ethnographic data, society, and culture - comparison of all groups to help put forth a theory.
Anthropological Archaeology or Archaeological Anthropology
Study of human behavior and cultural patterns and processes through culture's material remains - artifacts, garbage, burials, grains, and remains.
Garbology
Digging through landfills to know people's real behaviors vs what they report.
Biological (Physical) Anthropology
The study of human biological diversity in time and space (humans and primates).
Linguistic Anthropology
Studies human languages and the capacity to speak and as they move, how the language changes across space and time.
Sociolinguistics
Investigates relationships between social and linguistic variation.
Applied Anthropology
An application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems.
Cultural Resource Management
Deciding what needs saving, and preserving significant information about the past when sites cannot be saved.
Academic Anthropology
Grew after WWII by media showing other cultures and others asking questions about them, so universities hired them to inform on other people and cultures.
Anthropology and Education
Study of students in several contexts.
Urban Anthropology
Cross-cultural and ethnographic study of urbanization and life in cities. Compares urban, rural, and other areas and their environment.
Medical Anthropology
Comparative, biocultural study of disease, health problems, and health care systems.
Health Care Systems
Beliefs, customs, specialists, and techniques aimed at ensuring health and diagnosing and curing illness.
Curer
One who diagnoses and treats illness; often a shaman.
Scientific Medicine
Based on scientific knowledge and procedures.
Disease
Scientifically identified health threat caused by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or other pathogen.
Illness
Condition of poor health perceived or felt by an individual.
Personalistic Disease Theory
Illness blamed on such agents as sorcerers, witches, ghosts, or ancestral spirits - someone made someone sick.
Naturalistic Disease Theory
Illness explained in impersonal terms - such as body being out of balance.
Emotionalistic Disease Theory
Illness blamed on emotional experiences.
American Anthropological Association
The code of Ethics - having obligations to their field and the society and culture they're studying and the environment around them.
Participant Observation
Live with them, study them, and take good notes.
Emic
Perspective of the native people - provides how the local people think.
Etic
Scientific and western perspective - ethnographer emphasizes what they observe and what they consider to be important.
Interview Schedule
Ethnographer talks face to face with people and gets answers and records them down in their notes.
Genealogical Method
Procedures to get information about who is related, married, etc.
Life Histories
Recollection of a lifetime of experiences to provide more intimate and personal cultural portrait.
Key Cultural Consultants
People who can provide most complete or useful information about particular aspects of life.
Paleontology
Study of ancient life through fossil record.
Paleoanthropology
Study of human evolution through fossil (remains of something that once lived) record.
Taphonomy
Study of processes that affect the remains of dead animals.
Systemic Survery
Provides regional perspective by gathering information on settlement patterns over a large area.
Excavation
Recover remains by digging through layers of deposits that make up a site.
Ground Penetrating Radar
Device sifted over the ground and the waves bounce back and show you if something is underground.
Artifacts
Human made materials found years later.
Ecofacts
Unmodified natural items, such as animal bones and plan remains. (Butchering pits, garbage pits)
Features
Immovable structures, firepits, posts in the ground, roads, granaries, crematoriums fixed into the ground.
Experimental Archaeology
Replication of ancient techniques and processes.
Historical Archaeology
Uses written records as guides and supplements to archaeological approach.
Classical Archaeology
Study of illiterate civilizations of the old world.
Underwater Archaeology
Investigation of submerged sites.
Stratigraphy
Examines accumulation of sediments in layers.
Relative Dating
Provides a time frame in relation to other strata or materials.
Absolute Dating Techniques
More precise dating of artifacts and fossils with dates in numbers.
Paleopathology
Study of disease and injury in skeletons from archaeological sites.
Forensic Anthropology
Recovery, analysis, and identification of human remains in legal contexts.
Physical subfield.
Anthropometry
Measurement of human body parts and dimensions including skeletal parts - body mass and composition indicate nutritional status in living people.
Molecular Anthropology
Genetic analyses to assess evolutionary relationships among ancient and contemporary populations and among species.
Primatology
Study of primates in zoos and natural settings - studies their social systems and behavior suggest hypotheses about behavior that humans do or do not share with other primates and hominid ancestors.