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62 terms

AP Psychology Chapter 1

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psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes
scientific method
an approach to knowledge that relies on collecting data, generating a theory to explain the data, generating a theory to explain the data, producing testable hypotheses based on the theory, and testing those hypotheses empirically.
theory
systematic explanation of a phenomenon; it organizes known facts, allows us to predict new facts, and permits us to exercise a degree of control over the phenomenon.
hypotheses
specific, testable predictions derived from a theory
structuralism
School of psychology that stressed the basic units of experience and the combination in which they occur [ Tichtner]
functionalist theory
theory of mental life and behavior that is concerned with how an organism uses its perceptual abilities to function in its environment
psychodynamic theories
personality theories contending that behavior results from psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside conscious awareness
behaviorism
school of psychology that studies only observable and measurable behavior
gestalt psychology
school of psychology that studies how people perceive and experience objects as whole patterns
humanistic psychology
school of psychology that emphasizes nonverbal experience and altered states of consciousness as a means of realizing one's full human potential
cognitive psychology
school of psychology devoted to the study of mental processes in the broadest sense.
evolutionary psychology
an approach to, and subfield of, psychology that is concerned with the evolutionary origins of behaviors and mental processes, their adaptive value, and the purposes they continue to serve
dualism
theoretical perspective that emphasizes the study of observable behaviors, especially as they pertain to the process of learning.
empiricist
person who believes that knowledge comes from experience with the environment.
introspection
looking inward in attempt to study feelings and sensations
nativist
person who believes that certain ideas or personal characteristics are innate or inborn
Plato
greek philosopher that proposed that some ideas are innate
Aristotle
greek philosopher that proposed theories to explain many aspects of human behavior; supported the empiricist view that all knowledge comes from sensory experiences
Rene Descartes
french nativist scholar; proponent of dualism; argued that "threads" within the body control movement, and that some behaviors occur without thought
John Locke
British empiricist philosopher who argued that the mind is a blank slate at birth
Hermann von Helmholtz
German physiologist who demonstrated that the movement of impulses in the nerves and in the brain was not instantaneous, but instead took a small but finite about of time.
Charles Darwin
british biologist who introduced the ideas of natural selection and evolution; argued that specific behaviors evolved because they led to advantages in survival or reproduction
Wilhelm Wundt
german physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
G. Stanley Hall
american psychologist who established the first psychology research laboratory in the United States and founded the American Psychological Association
Edward Titchener
student of Wundt; popularized the method of introspection
William James
american philosopher and psychologist who wrote an influential psychology textbook
Hermann Ebbinghaus
german psychologist who conducted the first extensive experiments on memory
Mary Whiton Calkins
american psychologist who conducted research on memory, personality and dreams; first woman president of the APA
Sigmund Freud
austrian physician whose work focused on the unconscious causes of behavior and personality formation; founded psychoanalysis
Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist who discovered the principles of classical conditioning
Edwin Thorndike
american psychologist who conducted experiments on animal learning
Margaret Floy Washburn
american psychologist who studied animal behavior; first woman to receive a Ph.D in psychology
John B. Watson
american psychologist who championed behaviorism and studied operant conditioning
Jean Piaget
swiss psychologist who pioneered the cognitive development in children
Abraham Maslow
humanistic psychologist who developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological growth
Noam Chomsky
american linguist who influenced the growth of cognitive psychology
Carl Rogers
american psychotherapist who was a supporter of humanistic psychology
positive psychology
an emerging field of psychology that focuses on positive experiences, including subjective well-being, self-determination, the relationship between positive emotions and physical health, and the factors that allow i ndividuals, communities, and societies to flourish
gender
the psychological or social meanings attatched to being biologically male or female. often used interchageably with one's biological makeup or sex
gender stereotypes
general beliefs about characteristics that are presumed to be typical of each sex
gender roles
behaviors that we expect each gender to engage in
feminist theory
feminist theories offer a wide variety of views on the social roles of women and men, the problems and rewards of those roles, and the prescriptions for changing them
sexual orientation
refers to the direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same sex, the other sex, or both sexes
race
a subpopulation of species, defined according to an identifiable characteristic
ethnicity
a common cultural herritage-including religion, language or ancestry- that is shared by a group of individuals
culture
the tangible goods and the values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs that are passed from one generation to another
emprical evidence
information derived from systematic, objective observation
naturalistic observation
research method involving the systematic study of animal or human behavior in natural settings rather htan in the laboratory
observer bias
expectations or biases of the observer that might distort or influence his or her interpretation of what was actually observed
case study
intensive description and analysis of a single individual or just a few individuals
survery research
research technique in wihch questionaries or interviews are administered to a selected group of people
correlational research
research technique based on the naturally occuring relationship between two or more variables
experimental method
a research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior
participants
individuals whose reactions or responses are observed in an experiment
independent variable
in an experiment, the variable that is manipulated to test its effects on the other dependent variables
dependent variable
in an experiment, the variable that is measured to see how it is changed by manipulations made in the independent variable
experimental group
in a controlled experiment, the group subjected to a change in the independent variable
control group
in a controlled experiment, the group not subjected to a change in the independent variable; used for comparison with the experimental group
experimental bias
expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment or its interpretations
sample
selection of cases from a larger population
random sample
sample in which reach potential participant has an equal chance of being selected
representative sample
sample carefull chosen so that the characteristics of the participants correspond closely to the characteristics of the larger population.