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AP Vocabulary

Vocabulary terms that are used in AP Literature and Language
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Active Voice
Any sentence with an active verb
Ad Hominem
An attack on the person rather than the issues at hand
Allusion
A reference that recalls another work, another time of history, or another famous person
Anaphora
A deliberate repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of several successive poetic lines, prose sentence,clauses, or paragraphs.
Antithesis [an-tith-esis]
An observation or claim that is in opposition to your claim or an author's claim.
Apostrophe
Any prayer-like sentence that is directly addressed to someone who is not present; to a deity or muse or other power
Appositive
A noun phrase that modifies the noun next to it
Bandwagon
The argument "everyone is doing it" fallacy; especially appreciated by politicians trying to get voters
Begging the Question
The argument that occurs when the speaker states a claim that includes a word or phrase that needs to be defined before the argument can proceed
Complex sentence
Sentence structure that is a combination of a dependent clause and an independent clause; (combination of a sentence that cannot stand alone but is supported by another sentence that can)
Dialect
A regional speech pattern; the way people talk; also referred to as "colloquial language"
Euphemism
The use of a safer and nicer word for something others find inappropriate or unappealing
Fallacy
failure of logical reasoning; appear to make an argument reasonable but falsely so
Gerund
Verb ending in "ing" that serves as a noun
Juxtaposition
making one idea more dramatic by placing it next to its opposite
Malapropism
Word play in which one word is mistakenly substituted for another that sounds similar
Poisoning the Well
A person or character is introduced with language that suggests that he is not reliable before the reader knows anything about him
Premise
A claim or a statement of the truth, that makes sense to at least to the person making the the argument
Red Herring
The argument that distracts the reader by raising issues irrelevant to the case. It is like being given too many suspects in a murder mystery
Rhetorical Question
Answer is assumed designed to force the reader to respond in a predetermined manner
Slippery Slope Fallacy/Domino Theory
One thing leads to another
Straw Man Fallacy
Occurs when engaging in an argument that defines the opponents position when they are not present to defend themselves and its an easy attack
Anadiplosis
A technique of repetition which creates a string of related phrases
Argument from Ignorance
An argument stating that something is true because it has never been proven false
Chiasmus
ABBA structure of a sentence/phrase
Connotation
The associations or moods that accompany a word
Ethos
The credibility expertise on an issue
Etymology
The study of the origin of words and their historical uses
False Dilemma
A suggestion that the problem or debate only has two solutions
Jargon
A pattern of speech and vocabulary associated with a particular group of people
Non Sequitor
Latin for "does not follow" and is an argument by misdirection or any argument that does not follow any Logical order
Onomatopoeia
Figure of speech in which the sound of the word imitates the thing or action associated with it
Personification
Giving human attributes to non-human things
Polysendeton
Intentional over-use of coordinating conjunctions
Pun
A play on words
Rhetorical Shift
occurs when the author of an essay significantly alters his or her direction or style so much that it feels a different writer has taken over
Synechdoche
Part of something is symbolically used for the whole
Theme
Basic message or meaning of a work (could be argued in an essay)
Zeugma
Two or more elements in a sentence are tied together by the same verb or noun
Metonymy
name of one thing is substituted for another with which it is closely affiliated