Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter: 26 The Futile Search for Stability: Europe Between the Wars 1919-1939
Terms in this set (50)
League of Nations
est to prevent new causes of conflict that come from peace treaties.
Was not particuraly effective in maintaining the peace.
The US didn't join the league and because of the determination to be less involved in Europan affairs. Weakened league from the beginning.
Leagues only weapon for stoping aggression was economic sanctions-not that threatining.
(Czechoslovakia, Romainia, and Yugoslavia) Allied with France to contain Germany and maintain the new status quo. Overlooked the fundamental military weenesses of the nations.
Named after the American banker who chaired the commission
Reduced reparations and stabilized Germany's payments on the baasis of its ability to pay. Also gave Germany a $200 million loan for German recovery.
Treat of Locarno
Made by foreign ministers of Germany and France/ Guaranteed Germany's new western boarders with France and Belgium
Poland was still absent from agreement
Pact was viewed as the beginning of a new era of European Peace.
Made by American and French foreign ministers. It was a peace pacgt and 636 nations eventually agreed to it.
It didn't specify what would happen if someone broke the treaty though.
resultedbecause of a downturn in domestic economies an an international financial crisis caused by the collapse of the American stock market in 1929.
Banks that held loans started failing and the little to no circulation of money became a huge issue.
Goods became more scare and food prices skyrocketed as well as leaving many people without a job.
The Great Depression hit Germany the hardest with over 40% of the labor force out of work. America was hit the second hardest by the Depression.
Johyn Maynard Keynes
British economist, largely ignored
Wrote the General Theory of Employment. Interest, and Money in 1936
argued that unemployment stemmed from a decline in demand and that demand could be increased by public works, so spending would stimulate production and end the Depression.
Leftist partes were driven together to form the Popular front.
First Gov was formed in June and was a coalition of the COmmunists, Socialists, and Radicals.
Est the right of collective bargaining, a 40hr work week, 2 week paid vacations, and minimum wages.
Didn't solve Depression issues.
The New Deal
1st New Deal: Created a variety of new agencies designed to bring relief, recovery, and refor. The Federal Deposit Insureance Corporation was est to supp the nation's banks.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration provided funds to help states and local communities meet the needs of the destitue and the homeless.
2nd New Deal: Set up by Roosevelt and had a program of public works, Works Progress Admin (WPA) employed ppl to work on public works and paid them. Created the American Welfare State.
Social Security act made old-age pensions and unemployment insurence.
Also enc rapid grown of labor unions.
Elementary school teache4r.
Bc a socialist and bc the editor of AVANTI paper but he kept switching his political position that he was kicked out of the Socialist party
Fascio di Combattimento
Mussolini wanted to create a new political movement called fascism after his group. Also Known as the League of Combat. Didn't get anny attention in elections.
Bands of armed Fascists were formed and turned loose in attacks on the Socialist officies and newspapers. Strkes were initiated.
Mussolini made a pact with the Prime Minister and effectively got more seats in Parliament.
Benito Mussolini's nickname when he came into power and it means the 'duke' or the 'leader'
"Women into the home"
A fascist slogan. Women were to be homemakers and baby producers according to Mussolini.
Wanted population growth to indicate national strength.Women were highly encouraged to have kids and not work.
A german democratic state: always had issues: able leaders died and Hindenburg was eve elected president.
Son of an Austrian customs official. Huge failure in everything he tried to do. Eventually joined the German Worker's Party because he had nothing better to do.
Hitler's autobiography (My Struggle) talked about his 4 major influences and also his movement and ideology. He talked about nationalism, anti-Semitism, and anticommunism because of social Darwinian theory. It was essentially the blueprint of his rule.
Hitler took control of the German Worker's Party and renamed it the National Socialist German Worker's Party
Wantede to distiguish it from other parties and turned it into a mass movement with uniforms, flags, and its own newspaper.
Darwinian theory of stuffle that stresses the right of superior nations to the living space (Lebensraum) through expansion and the right of superior individuals to secure authoritarian leadership over the masses.
the leadership principle that entitled nothing less than a single-minded party under one leader. It was one group, not individual people that made up the Nazi party.
The Enabling Act
An amendment to teh Weimer constitution that the Nazis only needed 2/3 vote to pass.
Provided the legal basis for Hitler's subsequent acts: he didn't need the gov or president and Hitler became a dictator appointed by the parliament itself.
Nazi's offered a national awakening. Had a powerful appeal to a people psycologically crushed by the defeat of WWI. Nazis were protrayed as a strong image of a nwe Germany that was above parties and classes.
Hitler wanted Germany to be dominated by a superior Aryan racial state. He also wanted to further the Aryans to become the rulers of all of Europe and the rest of the world. Germans were willingly involved with it.
wanted to have an ewarly indoctrination of the nations youth to lay the foundations for a strong totalitarian state.
Believed in Hitler and became devoted to him as if he was a god.
Jews were excluded from German citizenship and forbade marriages and extramarital relationships between Jews and German Citizens.
Separated Jews politically, socially, and legally- preserve the Aryan race.
The Night of Shattered glasss: a Germany embassy in paris was assassinated by a Jew and the Nazis burned synagogues and destyroyed buisnesses- killed atleast 10 Jews and 30,000 male workers were rounded up and sent to consentration camps.
Jews were barred from all public buildings and couldn't work in any retail store.
Jews were encouraged to emigrate from Germany.
gov had nationalized transportation and communication facilities as well as banks mines facotires and businesses that employed more than ten workers.
gov got the right to requisition the produce of peasants.
Ppl delt with it during the war but after the civil war was over ppl began to sabotage the program by hoarding food.
New Economic Policy
modified version of the old capitalist system
Peasents were now allowed to sell their produce openly and reatil stores and small industries that employed fewer than 20 employees could be private owned.
Joined the Bolsheviks in 1903 and made a bank robbery to get money for the Boshevick cause. Gained control of the Communist Party and expelled Trotsky from the party and killed him to keep Stalin in power.
transformation of the Soviet Union from an agricultural country into an industrial state.
Emphasized maximum productino of capital goods and armaments.
stressed higher levels of achievement in produce. meet and pass quotas.
peasant proprietors who employed wage labor. Many people because kulaks.
Small farms were pushed together into huge collective farms to maximise livestock and crop roduction. Land was stolen from the peasents and they were only allowed to have one small garden.
General Francisco Franco
Led Spanish military forces that revolted against the government and created a Spanish civil War
Spanish Civil War
Popular front (current gov) was assisted by trucks, planes, tanks ets from other countries.
Franco's forces were aided by Italy and Germany. Franco est a dictatorship because they didn't want foreigners from the Popular front to take control in spain.
"Wireless" and the BBC
Radio waves could now be sent over a distance without wires connectin them.
The British Broadcasting Cororation was made into a public radio station
Birth of a Nation and The Blue Angel
Birth of a nation: the American film that became available and was made aparent that cinema was a new form of entertainment for the masses.
The Blue Angel: The first movie where a woman was portrayed as sensuous and popular. Women could now become stars and were thought of as more than just a wife.
Dopolavoro and Kraft durch Freude
Dopolavoro:Created by Mussolini's Italy (Afterwork)
A national recreaton agency- made clubhouses with facilities public in all towns and villages.
This provided entertaiment in Italy but also allowed it to be monitered by the gov.
Kraft durch Freude: the Nazi program(Strenght through Joy) coordinate the free time of the working class by offering a variety of activities. Also offered inexpensive vacations.
wrote Decline of the West: emphasized the decadence of Western civilization and posited its collapse. Thought that war would come again.
Marie Stopes' Married Love
English book that emphasized the sexual pleasure in marriage and becamse a best seller-first book to widley talk about sexual matters in such a frank way.
Dadaism and Surrealism
Dadaism: attempted to enshrine the purposelessness of life. Life didn't have a point and its useless and has no beginning or end.
Also known as anti-art
Women were allowed to discuss the art openly for the first time.
Surrealism:sought a reality beyond the material, sensible world and found it in the world of the unconsious through the portrayl of fanasies, dreames, or nightmares.
used logic to portray the illogical, created distrubing and evocative images.
Bauhaus School and Walter Gropius
school of art, architectyure, and design thaqt spread functionalism and was founded in 19149 at Weimer, Germany by the Berlin architech Walter Gropus.
Teaching staff was artists and designeres themselves and applied their arts while they taught.
Kurt Weill's The Threepenny Opera
Turned to jazz rhythems and other popular musical idioms for the music in Threepenny Opera. Music viewed as a form of art and artists even located their studios in porr, working class neighborhoods.
modern art was considered "Jewish" art.Hitler and Nazis discouraged it but there were art exhibitions that opened up to display the work anyways.
produced by the Socied union because Stailin made uniformity on artistic creativity. Wanted realistc presentations to show the social values in the ruling regimes.
Arnold Schoenberg and atonal music
Viennese compser who experimented with a radically nwe style: made musical pieces in which tonality is completely abandoned. No traditional forms in atonal music- invented a new system of composition-twelvetone composition- which used a scale of twleve notes independent of any tonal key. No modernity and didn't win favor until after WWII.
James Joyce and Virginia Woolf
James Joyce: Writen by and Irish exile Ulysses-told the story of ordinary ppl in Dublin by follwing the flow of their inner dialogue. Portrayed disconnected ramblinigs and veiled allusions.
Virginia Woolf: used her own stream of consciousness technique to make new artistic and literary forms.
Wrote Mrs. Dalloway and Jacob's Room- inner monologues of characters to show their world of existence.
Wanted to show a different view of a woman besides a mother and wife.
Followed Freud's ideas. studied dreams and eventually divereged sharply from Freud.
Unconsious was an opening to deep spiritual needs and ever-greatervistas for humans.
Collective unconscious: repository of memories that all human beings share and consisted of archetypes, mentoal forms or images that appear in dreasms.
Archetypes were burried into the mind, had no human sorurce and created a new, higher state of consciousness.
posited the "uncertainty principle" no human could ever determine the path of an electron because observing the electron with light affected the location: we couldn't accuratly predict anything physical.
showed that the atom could be split into seven subatomic particles and layed the foundations for the development of the atomic bomb.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 25: The Beginning of the Twentieth Century…
Chapter 27: The Deepening of the European Crisis:…
Chapter 29: The Western World
Chapter 23: The Mass Society in an "Age of Progres…
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
AP Euro Chapter 26: The Futile Search For A New St…
Chapter 26 IDS AP EURO
AP Euro Chapter 26 Key Terms
Chapter 26 Identifications
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Chapter 28: Cold War and a New Western World 1945-…
Chapter 24: An Age of Modernity, Anxiety and Mater…
Chapter 22: An Age of Nationalism and Realism
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Ola Afolabi BSC 2010 Chapter 4 Questions
Holistic Exam 2
Drivers Ed Segment 1 Test
Radiology Exam #2 (Radiation Biology)