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Chapter 27: The Deepening of the European Crisis: World War II
Terms in this set (50)
Adolf Hitler believed they were they leading race and should make a great civilization. They were threatened by the inferior Slavs.
(Living Space)maintained that as nation's power depended on teh amound and kind of land it occupied.
Hitler pushed the rest of Europe into letting germany get back their armed military and even take control of some land and no one in Europe tried to stop them so Hitler achieved his diplomatic revolution.
Anglo-German Naval Pact
British and German pact that allowed Germany to build a navy that would be 35% the size of the British navy and equal the amound of submarines.
Brit signed this pact because they though germany would be satisfied with the additional powers but Germany jsut pushed for more.
a Demalitarized state that hitler sent german troops into. According to the treaty of Versailles the French had the right to use any force against any violation of the treaty but France wouldn't act without Brit support and the Brit didn't see what was wrong with allowing Germany to contol Rhineland.
An agreement between Hitler and Mussolini that recognized their common political and economic interests.
?, the act of appeasing (as by acceding to the demonds of) Hitler appealed to everyone he encountered.
Prime minister of Britian was a strong advocate of appeaqsement and believed that teh survival of the Brit Empire depended on an accommodation with Germany.
Brit was on Hitlers side as long as he was peaceful.
a region of Czechoslovakia where many Germans lived; demanded by Hitler in 1938 to have control of this land; when Czechs refused, Hitler threatened war to acchieve his objective.
British Fench German and Italian conference that reached an agreement that met all of hitlers Demands. without initiating war.
Germany recieved Czecholovakia.
"Pease in our time"
Chamberlain thought that the Munich agreement ment peace but Hitler had Chamberlain under his spell- Hitler had no intentions of keeping the peace.
1939 non- agression pact
Publicly, this agreement stated that the two countries - Germany and the Soviet Union - would not attack each other. If there were ever a problem between the two countries, it was to be handled amicably. The pact was supposed to last for ten years; it lasted for less than two.
German "lightning war" Hitler stunned Europe with the speed and effciency of German attack. Armouned columns supported by ariplanes broke quickly through Polish lines and encircled the overwhelmed troops and city.
France had build a series of concrete and steel fortifications armed with heavy artillery along its border with Germany
Germany suprised the French and British by attacking France through Luxembourg and avoided the Maginot Line completely. This maneuver split that Allied army and trapped half of the French troops and the entire British army on the beaches of Dunkirk. Ships had to come and take the soldiers off of the beach and resuce them.
Replaced Nevile Chamberlain with a hard-line policy toward Nazi Germany. Was confident that he could lead Britian to an ultimate victory. Refused to allow Hitler to enter Britian and so hitler prepaired to take Britianby force.
Battle of Britain
German invasion of Britian. Germans tried to bomb British cities but British used airforce to beat Germany
Japan bombed Pearl harbor, Hawaii where the US had a huge naval force. Led to US getting involved in the war with the Germans
Great ESast Asia Co-Prostperity Sphere
all of the islands and E. Asia was declared to be under Japanese control, they used the resources of the region for its wartime issues and placed the countried under its rule on a wartime basis but not colonial.
US Britian and Soviet Union that had to allied together to simply remove Nazism from Germany.They didn't have any other similarites and disagreed on most subjects.
British forces occupied North Africa and had to stop an uprising of German African troops at El Almein. They were forced back across the desert.
Turning point of the war in the East occured at Stalingrad- Hitler wanted to capture Stalingrad because it was a major inc center on the Volga. German troops were stopped and then circled and foced to surrender.
Battle of Midway
American planes destroyed all four of the attacking Japanese aircraft carriers and est American naval superiority in the Pacific.Japanese began to loose their power.
Dwight D. Eisenhower landed 5 assault divisions on the Normandy beaches and it was the worls greatesst naval invasion.within 3 months all men pushed inland and broke through the German defensive lines through the normandy beaches.
Battle of Kursk
Hitler wanted to take the offensive by making use of the newly developed tanks. The german forces were defeated by the Soviets at the greatest tank battle of WWII.
Nazi propagandists used images of a new European order based on "equal chances" for all the nations and an intergrated economic community.
Claus von Stauffenberg
believed that only the elimination of Hitler would bring the overthrow of the Nazi regime.
He planted a bomb in Hitler's East Prussian headquarters and it exploded but didn't kill dictator. Stauffenberg was quickly executed along with 5000 other ppl who participated in the antinazi movement.
When the emigration of the Jews wasn't fast enough Hitler proposed an idea of exterminating the Jews. Death camps were set up to kill the Jews in mass murder slaughter to preserve the German Aryan race.
Hundrerds of thousands of Jews were killed or emigrated to other countrys to escape the Nazi force.
a idea of a mass shipment of Jews to the island of Madagascar off the eastern coast of Africa. Cost too much so the Jews were just killed.
the annihilation of the Jewish people set up by Reinhard Heydrich allowed the Security Service to round up the Jews and send them to their deaths.
jspecial strick forces to round up all the Jews and concentrate them in ghettos established in a number of Polish cities.
The largest and most infamous death camp- used Jews for medical experiments but usually killed them all with Zyklon B (hydrogen cyanide). Tricked people into thinking that they were going to take showers but really killed them all.
Conference set up to tell aqll the other Germans how to carry out the final step of eliminating the Jews. Worked out all the details to ship the Jews from their homes to the camps.
Jews were told that they were going to take a shower but the Germans rounded them up to use Zyklon B gas to mass exterminate the bodies and then cremate them. ALl of the victims goods were sold or used.
women in agriculture that did the labor that was usually reserved for men in Britian. They worked due to the labor shortage of the war.
"Dig for Victory"
A campaign by the gov to increase food prod. Feilds were all turned into gardens so people could plant their own food to help people with the lack of food.
Great Patriotic War
Soviets viewed the war as patriotic- witnessed the greatest land battles in history- they were all incredibly ruthless. Most of the people killed in the war were Soviets.
female piolts in the Soviet air force who helped defeat the Germans at Stailngrad.They were snipers and also air crews in the bomber squadrons.
Hitler's personal architect who was made minister for armaments and munitions in 1942. He eliminated waste and erationalzed procedures- tripled the production of armaments despite the Allied air raids. Hitler didn't allow him to make Germany a total mobilized war state though for fear that the home front would not participate in the war any longer.
Italian general who said it would be effective to bomb the other counties because the civilians would be unhappy and therefore would coerce governments into making peace. Also began the development of long range bombers in the 1930s.
first use of civilian bombing on London by Germany
Nightly combing of Britian by Germany became a national experience. Because Londoneres refused to panic the rest of Britian was calm with the bombs and didn't have the desired effect that Germany wanted.
The wartime leader of the British air force's Bomber Command which was rearmed with 4 bombs per plain. Wanted to bomb German cities to break civilian morale and bring victory.
Ferocious bombing of Britian on Germany that lasted 2 days made a firestorm that may have killed up to 100,000 people. Allied leaders begain to think that the bombing was unnecessary and too extensive for just sheer terror factors.
Allied Strategic Bombing Survey
showed that the production of war materail increase in Germany even when they were being bombed by Britian. Also revealed that the British destroyed the transportation systems and fuel supples and made it difficult for the enw material to reach the German military.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Atomic bombs launched by America under President Truman on Japan. Destuction was incredible. Almost everyone felt the bomb and the atomic bomb caused intense side effects because of radiation poisoning.
Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill leaders of the big three of the grand alliance met to figure out the treaty for WWII.
German defeat was inevitable- conference met in Ukraine
Stalin was ready to get imp resources and military positions ffrom wining the war but Roosevelt wanted to end the system of dictatorship and declared that all democratic institutions had their own choice in their type of government.
Americans wanted Russian help with the atomic bomb on Japan and US gave up territory to Russia.
Next conference, W. Relations with the Soviets were deterioriating rapidly- Allied powers couldnt figure out what to do because they didn't agree on anything except beating Nazism.
Conference was all under mistrust because Roosevelt had died and been succeded by Harry Truman. The bomb for Japan was successfully tested so there was a new coldness between the Soviets and Americans.
Truman demanded the free elections through E. Europe. Stail didnt allow it.
They were already disagreeing
"an Iron curtain"
iron curtain had divided Germany and Europe into two hostile camps between mostly Soviets and US. Cold war is about to start now.
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