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Chapter 28: Cold War and a New Western World 1945-1970
Terms in this set (50)
United States and Soviet Union:
Considered superpowers because they were the most advanced countries and there for most threatening to each other.
Millions of people that had been moved by the war and had gotten lost, occurred during WWII
stated that the United states would provide money to countries that claimed they were threatened by Communist expansion.
This was supposed to help the spread of the communist "disease"
Truman requested $400 million in economic and military aid for Greece and Turkey from Congress.
Intended to rebuild prosperity and stability
$13 billion for the economic recovery of the war torn Europe.
Passed because of the belief that communism thrived off of economic turmoil.
Plan did not intend to shut out Soviet Union or Eastern European countries but they refused to Participate.
Soviets viewed the plan as a way to "buy" over the countries to stop communism.
The United states had a formal policy to keep the Soviet Union out of European and American affairs. They were constantly ignored especially after the blockade of Berlin.
Response to Americans, British, and French merging their zones of Germany economically and wanting to make the unification of these tree sections formal. (wanted W Germany to include a formal gov)
Soviets rep with a blockade that allowed neither trucks or trains to enter the tree western zones of Berlin. They hoped that this would secure the economic control of Berlin and force the Western powers to stop the creation of a separate W German State
US found a solution with the Berlin Air Lift which daily flew in supplies to keep the Inhabitants of Berlin supplied.
Soviets didn't want to risk war so they eventually just lifted the blockade.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Formed between Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Portugal with US and Canada.
Agreement to provide mutual assistance if any one of them was attacked.
Greece and Turkey later joined.
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
Formed by the Eastern European states for economic cooperation
Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union later made the WARSAW PACT.
Korea was freed from the Japanese but was soon divided into two parts: N Korea and S Korea.
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (N Korea):
Supp by the Soviet Union
Republic of Korea (S Korea):
Supp by the US
US viewed Soviet aggression in N Korea as a form of Communism and sent troops back to defend S Korea.
No clear victory between the two countries: the 38th parallel line bc the boarder b/t N and S Korea.
Americans feared that this was the first step of Communist expansion-reinforced american det. to contain the Soviet power.
Policy adopted by Dwight D. Eisenhower which advocated the full use of American nuclear bombs to counteract even a Soviet ground attack in Europe.
American forces were extended to around the world.
CENTO and SEATO
Central Treaty Organization
Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, GB and the US to prevent the Soviet Union from expanding at the expense of its southern neighbors.
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
Formed between the US, Brit, France, Pakistan, Thailand, Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand
to try and prevent Soviet aggression in the East.
The new leader of the Soviet Union who tried to solve Issues in Berlin by threatening Berlin with the E Germans. Built a Wall separating E Berlin and W Berlin.
Also allowed for the Cuban Missile Crisis to Occur.
The first space satellite launched by the Soviet Union
Khrushchev announced that the West had to remove their forces from Berlin or else he would give control of the access routes to the E Germans.
Eisenhower and West stood strong and eventually Khrushchev backed down.
He built a wall separating E Berlin and W Berlin to fade the issue.
Bay of Pigs
an American supported attempt to overthrow the new Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. Failed miserably.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Fidel Castro overthrew the Cuban dictator and est a soviet totalitarian government that advocated communism.
Allowed Soviet Union to station missiles in Cuba near the coast of Florida.
The US had missiles in Turkey too but they reacted intensely and demanded a agreement between the two countries.
There was a communication system esp between the Moscow and Washington and the two superpowers were no longer allowed to test nuclear tests in the atmosphere.
This agreement slightly lessened the tensions between the two nations.
N and S Vietnam were divided after France decolonized it.
N was nationalistic under Ho Chi Minh and got Soviet support
S was a pro Western regime under Ngo Dinh Diem
The US supported S with military and financial aid.
S Vietnam had a corrupt and incapable government and they couldn't deal with the Vietcong (S Vietnam Communist guerrillas-supp by Soviets)
Lots of American troops were sent into S Vietnam but eventually had to pull out (lots of anti war movements-esp with college age students)
2 yrs later Vietnam was forcibly made Communist
First time that the US had lost.
How Americans viewed the spread of communism- one country would fall to communism after another:domino effect.
The new era in American-Soviet relations., the easing of tensions or strained relations between US and SU.
Swahili for freedom
Used by the Mau Mau who were terrorists who demanded liberation from the British.
British eventual independence.
African National Congress
political activity by local blacks in South Africa.
Because the country was dominated by whites, blacks were constantly discriminated against; esp with racial segregation called apartheid.
wanted to gain economic and political reforms including education for Africans.
Had little success.
Sympathy for the idea of Arab unity led to the formation of the league but different points of view among the members prevented it from doing anything important.
State of Israel
Jews wanted to be given Palestine as their holy land and to be protected from persecution.
After the Holocaust a lot of people felt bad for the Jews so Truman granted them the independent state.
United Nations divided Palestine into both a Jewish and an Arab state because there were not enough Jews. Jew proclaimed the state of Israel as their own.
This outraged Muslims.
PLO and al-Fatah
Palestine Liberation Organization: made to represent the interests of the Palestinians.
al-Fatah: guerrilla movement led by the PLO launched terrorist attacks on Israeli territory. Israel just took the land of its Arab neighbors.
Israel devastated the other sides forces and tripled the size of its territory in only 6 days.
Israel was now an official state.
Indian National Congress
Mostly Hindu: what Britain negotiated with when they discussed the liberation of India.
Because the Muslims and Hindus of India were severely divided Britain split India into two countries:
Muslim: Pakistan (2 territories separated by India)
The only congress leader who objected the split of India.Claimed that the split would only bring a ton of blood shed
"orgy of blood"
A massive spill of blood that would be caused by the split of India. Predicted by Gandhi.
China Communist leader: built Their People's Liberation Army to take over China and began to build a socialist society. He collectivized all private farmland and nationalized most industry and commerce.
Great Leap Forward
The more radical communist program when collective farms failed to increase food production.
Mobilized people to make communes to speed up eco growth and make a classless society.
Ended up being a disaster.
Great Proletariat Cultural Revolution
The forced march toward communism launched by Mao. It lasted ten years and had a constant revolutionary fervor. The Red Guards army were sent out to eliminate old ideas, culture, customs, and habits.
When Mao died China adopted a more practical approach to the issues.
The process of forcing the Soviet type five year plans on E European satellite states.
Heavy emphasis on industry and not consumer goods
collectivized agriculture and eliminated all non Communist parties.
Repression forces made
Communism never took a strong hold in the countries.
Hungary didn't like the soviets and communism so they declared themselves to be a free nation but the Communist Red Army invaded the capital city and forced the Hungarians to be strictly communist.
In Czechoslovakia imposed by Alexander Dubcek who introduced reforms.
freedom of speech, and press, travel freedom, and relaxation of the secret police activities.
This period of euphoria created by Dubcek did not last long tho.
Christian Democratic Parties
New party: not connected to prewar church based parties and were not advocates of church interests.
They just were interested in democracy and in significant economic reforms.
Charles de Gaulle's Fifth Republic
Determined to reestablish the French nation
Fifth republic enhanced the power of the pres and now de Gaulle wanted to return France to a great power.
Det to play a pivotal role in the cold war to enhance France's stature.
Det to give France the same nuclear power as the two superpowers.
France was ultimately too small for global ambitions.
Leader of the Christian democrats who served as a chancellor in W Germany and made the Federal Rep. Wanted to cooperate with the US and other W Euro nations so W Germany could gain some respect.
Adenauer reconstructed the W German economy-financed by Ludwig Erhard; doubled wages and cut work hours by 20%. Unemployment went from 8 to .4%
Imported guest workers to help out the economy from neighboring countries.
Set in place in Brit by Clement Attlee: nationalized the Bank of England as well as many industries, transportation, and utilities.
Now social security was given to everyone and all people had available medical insurance.
Gamal Abdel Nassar leader of Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal and the British forces could not get it back.
United nations called for a cease-fire and withdrew the troops
Est the fact that Brit was no longer a world power.
European Coal and Steel Community
Formed bt France, W Germ, Benelux counties, and Italy
Purpose: to create a common market for coal and steel productions: eliminated tarrifs and other trade barriers.
The success of this enc them to make the Atomic Energy Community to further Euro research on peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
EEC/ Common Market
Eliminated custom barriers for the six member nations and created a large free trade area protected from the rest of the world by a common external tariff.
Promoted free trade: enc cooperation and benefited the nations economies.
"war on poverty"
Pres Johnson undertook the New Deal to fight poverty, elderly, and health care.
made food stamps and new Job Corps to allow ppl to get money and be able to eat.
Martin Luther King
a Baptist minister who became the leader of the movement for racial equality: sit ins and demonstrations across the South went on to end racial segregation.
Marched to Washington for Jobs and Freedom to show Black's desire for equal rights and oppertunites.
52% of all Americans called for civil rights.
Increase in real wages and jobs themselves provided for more money in middle class families.
Now they had the money to buy the cheep goods: workers had the same products as the middle class.
Automobile also was a symbol of mass consumerism.
Women's liberation movement
Feminism: women protested that their political and legal equality was not completely equal to that of men's. The wanted to have the same pay.
Simone de Beauvoir and Betty Friedan
Simone de Beauvoir: writer who wrote the Second Sex in which she argued that as a result of male dominated societies women had been defined y their differences from men and constantly received second class statues.
Her book became a major influence.
Betty Friedan: wrote the Feminine Mystique: analyzed the issues of middle class american women and argued that women were being denied equality with men.
Became a bestseller.
Founded the National Organization for Women (NOW) who wanted to give equal rights to women.
The first significant crack in the rigid code of manners and morals of the nineteenth century.
Experimentation of drugs and sex was common.
Birth Control Pill
became widely available and gave people more freedom in their sexual behavior.
Discontent of students because professors didn't pay attention to their students.
Students felt that their curriculum was not relevant to the realities of the modern age.
Most often the student revolts were sparked by the opposition to the Vietnam War.
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