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Chapter 29: The Western World
Terms in this set (50)
Example of reduced tensions between the superpowers. Signed by US, Canada, and all Euro nations it recognized the borders that had been established in Euro since the end of WII
Acknowledged the Soviet sphere of influence in E Euro
Committed the signatory powers to recognize and protect the human rights of their citizens.
The "evil empire"
Pres Ronald Reagan went back to the harsh practices of Cold War.
Called Soviet Union and Evil empire and began a military buildup that stimulated another arms race.
Strategic Defense Initiative
Crease a space shield that could destroy oncoming missiles.
Invented by Ronald Reagan
new pres of the Soviet Union brought a dramatic end to the cold war.
"New Thinking" opened the door to serious changes in the Soviet practices.
He initiated a plan for arms limitation that let to an agreement with the US to entirely eliminate intermediate range nuclear weapons
Greater autonomy for the Communist regimes of E Europe meant that SU would not militarily supp the Communist gov that faced internal revolt.
First imp military conflict in the post Cold War period.
Soviets supp all American action and played a little part
Iraq and US.
New World Order
Pres George Bush envisioned a new world order and even though the US was the worlds leading military power its role was not clear.
Bill Clinton used power in the world to restore the democratic systems in fragile countries.
In charge of the Soviet Union
Lived by the slogan: "No experimentation"
became head of party and state but refused to reform.
His years of rule were calm but the only thing that the doctrine represented was the right of the SU to intervene if socialism was threatened in another socialist state. This led to the involvement of SU troops in Czech.
"restructuring" by Gorbachev for SU.
reordering the eco policy-market economy with limited free enterprise and some private property.
"Openness" Part of the perestroika where soviet citizens were enc to discuss openly the strengths and weaknesses of the SU.
Commonwealth of Independent States
END OF SOVIET UNION. Republics moved in for complete isolation.
Ukraine was ind and later Russia and Ukraine and Belarus announced that the Soviet Union stopped existing and now the new and voluntary Commonwealth of Independent states was in power.
Commander in chief to Gorbachev: also the Pres of Russia and was in charge of the Commonwealth of Ind States.
Poland had too much borrowing from the west- Edward Gierek tried to pay off the W debt by raising food prices. Workers protests erupted- independent labor movement formed. called solidarity.
Led the Solidarity movement- represented the majority of the workers and had supp of the catholic church.
Let Solidarity win a series of concessions and were only stopped when it was outlawed and leaders arrested.
Czechoslovakia: imp part in bringing the communist gov don.
Declared amnesty for 30,000 polit prisoners and he was a spokesman for Czech democracy and a new order in Euro
Czech Republic and Slovakia
Czechoslovakia split into 2 countries because the Czechs and Slovaks disagreed on ethnic issues.
They agreed to peacefully divide though. Now the land was called Czech Republic (Pres Vaclav Havel) and Slovakia
Pres of E Germany who was a party hardliner and made use of the secret police to rule with a iron fist for the next 18 yrs.
Pop unrest and an eco slump caused a mass exodus of E Germ refugees.
Soon the communist gov opened up the whole Germ border- the tear down of the Berlin Wall was a huge celebration.
leader of Yugoslavia and the leader of the Serbian Communist Party.
Stayed in power only because of his emphasis on his Serbian nationalism.
People didn't like him and Slovenia and Croatia eventually declared their independence from Yugoslavia.
Even though Bosnia was an independent nation Yugoslavia still attacked it.
"Ethnic cleansing": forcibly removing the Bosnian Muslims from their land.
Serbs viewed this territory as their national identity, it came from their defeat in the Battle of Kosovo against the Ottoman Turks in 1389. Serbs refused to sign a treaty to give Kosovars more autonomy the NATO took action and made Serbian troops withdraw from Kosovo.
European Community: GB Ireland and Denmark joined the European Economic Community. Economic integration of the members of the Euro Community led to cooperative efforts in international and political affairs as well.
Led by Social Democratic chancellor Willy Brandt:
successful with the "Opening toward the east" (Ostopolitik)
Made the Basic Treaty with E Germ that led to the cultural, personal, and eco contacts bt W and E Germany.
Christian Democrat: reunified the two Germanys and kept Kohl in power.
Won popular vote in the first all-German federal election.
Conservative: first woman to serve as prime minister in British History.
known as the "Iron Lady": Broke power of the labor unions, didn't eliminate the components of the social welfare system, used austerity measures to control inflation.
Hated communism she was eventually kicked out of ruling by a revolt within her own party when she put out a poll tax when she tried to replace property taxes.
The economic policy of Margaret Thatcher
Argentina attempted to take control of the Falkland Islands (Brit colonial outposts) but Brit successfully rebuked the Argentines.
This was got Thatcher a lot of popular patriotic support.
Labor Party: won the Britain election by a landslide; leader in forming an international coalition against terrorism after 9-11 in the US.
Socialist leader in the French National Assembly.
first concern was France's eco difficulties
froze prices of goods and wages to red the budget deficit and inflation
Helped workers by inc minimum wage, expanding social benefits, and a week of paid vacation for salaried workers, 39 hr workweek, and higher taxes for the rich.
Ideas didn't work and French eco decline continued.
The Red Brigades and the Mafia
Red Brigades: a terrorist organization who kidnapped and killed government officials.
Mafia: corrupting factor in S Italy but also spread to N Italy.
US Pres Nixon was paranoid about conspiracies and used illegal methods to get political intelligence on his political opponents.
Ex) bugged the Dem Nat Headquarters in the Watergate apartment.
Tapes of his conversations in the white house proved him guilt-he resigned soon later.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries: Increased the price of oil as a result of the Arab-Israeli War first time that there was an oil inflation.
Ran the Iranian Gov- took 53 Americans and Pre Carter could do nothing to release the hostanges.
He was known as a weak president
Massive tax cuts started by Reagan.
this would stimulate eco growth and produce new revenues. Tax cut went to wealthy
it seemed to work at first but Reagans increable spending made the US be in huge deficits.
Liberal party came to power in canada with Pierre Trudeau who passed the Official Languages Act (English + French used in federal civil service). his gov pushed an industrialization program but high inflation + imposeing will of fed gov on powerful provisional govs = alienates voters. Econ recession = Progressive Conservative party with Brian Mulroney comes to power in 1984.
Irish Republican Army which resorted to vicious attacks against ther uling gov and innocent civilians in N Ireland.
World Trade Center
9-11 4 airplanes flew into the World Trade Center in New York City. killed hundereds of people- Twin towers and pentagon were destoryed.
Carried out by the terrorist group al-Queda ruin by Osama bin Laden
workers that came in from colones and other parts of Europe to work in the larger countries to help the economic issues and help the sevre labor shorage.
Groups concerned about the envioornmetnal health of the world- they orignated from other issues (antinuclear, womens liberation, etc)
Never got really powerful-always had disagreements over something and were too small to make a big influence.
Portrays American exhuberance with large canvis and no shapes at all. Bright colors
moved away from the futerism qualities of Modernism=-favored tradition when painting and trad crafts like weavers, potters, glassmakers, metalsmiths, and furniture makers were now "artists"
Surrealism and Minimalism
Serialism:new trend, 12 tone music inspired. Order of succession is set for specific values: ptich, loudness, and units of time. Creates unanticipated musical events.
Favored intellect and mathemeatical precision in music.;
Not a winner with the public.
Minimalism: got pop support: used repeated patterns with steady pulsation with gradual changes over time. Tonal and harmonic. Used both pop and classical music themes.
Theater of the Absurd
Most significant postwar literature. The world is absolutly absurd
Waiting for Godot
Written by Samuel Beckett: two men were porterayed with no background waiting for someone. the audience has no clue what the men are doing and what is real or not real.
Asks the question whaty is happening now not what is happening next.
Latin American: combined realistic events with dreamlike or fantastic backgrounds. Fact and fantasy depend on the point of view of the person.
became popular because of the two wars and breakdown of traditional values. said that humans have no destiny and there was no god. Humans' only hope is themselves and people have to exist first and then define themselves and determine what they wil be.
Acts alone can determine his or her values.
Individuals true to themselves refused to be depersonalized by their society
Albert Camus and John Paul Sartre
Publicized the anxieties in their works to start the philosophy of existentialism.
Popes John XXIII and John Paul II
two popes who brought the renewal of Catholocism to modern thought.
John XXIII: Made the Vatican II meeting which took away alot of the catholic pracitices and made it more friendly with the other christian practices for the first time since the Reformation.
John Paul II: Trad Catholic treachings but strengthened the church throughout the Non western world: believed in social justice
didn't like materialism or nuclear weapons.
A wartime creation by Alan Turing to help Biritsh intelligence in breaking the secret codes of German ciphering machines.
COBOL: invented by Grace Hopper allowed the Computer to rep to words and numbers.
New Microprocessor combined thousands of transitors onto a silicon chip
Now the comuter was ready to be developed.
Elvis Presley, The Beatles and MTV
Elvis Presly:mixed white "folkabilly" with rhythem and blues. Rock-and-roll became popuolar with the larger white audience.
Beatles: a British performing group who was inspred by Elvis Presly. They invaded the United States and created a sensation for all new rockers in America.
MTV: Video Music Channel on tv- made the image as important of the sound in selling of the records.
Marshall McLuhan's "global village"
predicted that in the 1960s advances in mass communicatons technology like satellites and electronics would lead to the shrinking of the world, a lessening of cultural distinctions, and break down of cultural barriers. Transform the world into a "global village"
Ideas became popular
Non-Governental Organizations: groups who were concerned about social movments
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