Psych 101 Chapter 6
Terms in this set (45)
Maintains that dreams represent the brain's attempt to interpret random patterns of neural activation triggered by the brain stem during sleep.
A drug that increases or mimics the activity of a neurotransmitter.
When intoxicated, a "short-sightedness" in thinking (a failure to consider consequences) caused by an inability to pay attention to as much information as when sober.
A brain-wave pattern of 8 to 12 cycles per second that is characteristic of humans in a relaxed, drowsy state.
A drug that inhibits or decreases the action of a neurotransmitter.
automatic (unconscious) processing
Mental activities that occur with minimal or no conscious control or awareness.
A brain-wave pattern or 15 to 30 cycles per second that is characteristic of humans who are in an alert waking state.
A disorder in which people are blind in part of their visual field yet, in special tests, respond to stimuli in that field despite reporting that they cannot see those stimuli.
A specialized lining of cells in the brain's blood vessels that screens out foreign substances while letting nutrients pass through to neurons.
Biological cycles within the body that occur on an approximately 24-hour cycle.
cognitive-process dream theories
Approaches to intelligence that analyze the mental processes that underlie intelligent thinking.
A bodily response that opposes a drug's effects and occurs in an attempt to restore homeostasis.
Our moment-to-moment awareness of ourselves and our environment; consciousness involves selective attention to ongoing thoughts, perceptions, and feelings.
controlled (conscious) processing
Mental processing that requires volitional control and attentiveness.
Low-frequency, high-amplitude brain waves that occur in stage 3 sleep and predominate in stage 4 sleep.
Drugs including alcohol, barbiturates, and tranquilizers that reduce neural activity and can decrease feelings of tension and anxiety.
dissociation theories (of hypnosis)
Views that focus on hypnosis as an altered state involving a division ("dissociation") of consciousness; one theory proposes that the hypnotized person simultaneously experiences two streams of consciousness that are cut of from one another.
The ability to perform more than one activity at the same time.
evolutionary circadian sleep models
The view that in the course of evolution, each species developed an adaptive circadian sleep-wake pattern that increased its chances of survival in relation to its environmental demands.
False perceptions that have a compelling sense of reality.
A condition of enhanced suggestibility in which some people are able to experience imagined situations as if they were real.
hypnotic susceptibility scales
A set of induction procedures and test questions that enable researchers to measure a person's responsiveness to hypnotic suggestions.
A sleep disorder involving chronic difficulty in falling asleep, staying asleep, or experiencing restful sleep.
A hormone, secreted by the pineal gland, that has a relaxing effect on the body and promotes a readiness for sleep.
The creation and binding together of neural codes that allow information to be transferred from working memory into long-term memory.
A sleep disorder that involves extreme daytime sleepiness and sudden, uncontrollable sleep attacks during waking hours.
A disorder in which a sleeper often feeling a strong sense of dread or danger becomes aroused to a near panic state.
A category of drugs consisting of opium and drugs derived from it, such as morphine, codeine, and heroin.
problem-solving dream models
The view that dreams can help us find creative solutions to our problems and conflicts because they are not constrained by reality.
A recurring sleep stage characterized by rapid eye movements, increased physiological arousal paralysis of the voluntary muscles, and a high rate of dreaming.
REM-sleep behavior disorder (RBD)
A sleep disorder in which the loss of muscle tone that causes normal REM-sleep paralysis is absent, thereby enabling sleepers to move about sometimes violently and seemingly act out their dreams.
The theory that sleep recharges our run-down bodies and allows us to recover from physical and mental fatigue.
seasonal affective disorder
A disorder in which depressive symptoms appear or worsen during certain seasons of the year (most typically, fall and winter) and then improve during the other seasons.
A cognitive process that focuses awareness on some stimuli to the exclusion of others.
A disorder characterized by a repeated cycle in which the sleeper stops breathing, momentarily awakens gasping for air, and then returns to sleep.
Stages 3 and 4 of sleep, in which the EEG pattern shows large, slow brain waves called delta waves.
social-cognitive theories (of hypnosis)
The proposition that attributes the higher prevalence of schizophrenia in low-income people to the greater stress they experience.
Drugs that stimulate neural activity, resulting in a state of excitement or aroused euphoria.
A maladaptive pattern of substance use that causes a person significant distress or substantially impairs that person's life; substance dependence is diagnosed as occurring "with physiological dependence" if drug tolerance or withdrawal symptoms have developed.
suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)
The brain's master "biological clock," located in the hypothalamus, that regulates most circadian rhythms.
The major active ingredient in marijuana.
A condition in which increasingly larger doses of a drug are required to produce the same level of bodily responses; caused by the body's compensatory responses, which counter the effects of the drug.
A disorder in which an individual is unable to visually recognize objects.
In Freudian theory, the partial or complete satisfaction of a psychological need through dreaming or waking fantasy.
The occurrence of compensatory responses after drug use is discontinued, causing the person to experience physiological reactions opposite to those that had been produced by the drug.