Chapter 36 Plant Form/Function

indeterminate growth
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Terms in this set (66)
apical budwhere growth occurs that extends the length of the stem or branchprop rootsroots of corn plants that help brace individuals in windy weatherpneumatophoresspecialized lateral roots that function in gas exchangecontractile rootsoften found in plants with bulbs; roots that shorten to pull the organism deeper into the soilnodeswhere leaves are attachedinternodessegments between nodesstolonsstems that run over the soil surfacerhizomesstems that grow underground horizontallytubersrhizomes modified to store carbohydratesthornsstems that protect the plant from herbivorescactus stemsstems that store waterbladeexpanded portion of leafpetiolestalk portion of a leafsun leavesleaves with relatively small surface area that reduces water loss in areas where light is abundantshade leavesleaves that are large and provide a high surface area that maximizes absoprtion of rare photonsspinesmodified leaves that protect the stemsucculentsplant species with thick leaves that store watertendrilsenable garden peas/other vines to climb; modified leaflets or leavesprimary plant bodycells that are derived from apical meristems form thisdermal tissue systemcovers body and protects it; given rise by protodermvascular tissue systemprovides support and transports water, nutrients, and photosynthetic products between root and shoot; given rise by procambiumground tissue systemmakes up bulk of plant body and is responsible for photosynthesis and storage; given rise by the ground meristemroot capgroup of cells that protects the roof apical meristem; secretes mucigel to lubricate root tip as it moves through soilzones of cellular divisioncontains the apical meristem, the protoderm, ground meristem, and procambiumzone of cellular elongationcompromised of cells that are actively increasing in lengthzone of cellular maturationwhere older cells complete their differentiation into dermal, vascular, and ground tissuesroot hairsempidermal cells produced in the zone of cellular maturation. (lateral roots begin to grow too)vascular bundlesgrouped vascular tissues; form strand running the length of the stemin a ringhow are vascular bundles arranged in eudicots?scatteredhow are vascular bundles arranged in monocots?xylemconducts water and dissolved ions in one direction: from the root system to the shoot system. DEAD AT MATURITY, no cytoplasm; have tracheidsphloemconducts sugar, amino acids, chemical signals, and other substances throughout the plant body has sieve-tube members and companion cellstracheidsin all vascular plants; water-conducting cells found in the xylemvessel elementsin angiosperms; xylem contains tracheids and these conducting cells allow unipeded passage of water between adjacent cellssieve-tube membersin phloem; lack nuclei/organelles and they transport sugars and other nutrientscompanion cellsfound in phloem; cells that don't conduct but help with loading and unloading of carbs and other nutrients from sieve tube membersorganization of ground tissuepith inside vascular bundles; cortext outside vascular bundlesground tissuemost photosynthesis and carbohydrate storage happens hereparenchyma"workhorse" cells with thin primary cell walls that are the most abundant and versatile type of ground tissue; site for photosynthesis in leaves and mainly stores starch in roots; totipotenttotipotentthey can divide and develop into a complete mature plant; most parenchyma cells are thiscollenchymatype of ground tissue that provides structural support to growing regions of the plant; has primary cell walls that vary in thicknesssclerenchymatype of ground tissue with thick secondary cell walls made of lignin; functions in specialized support after active growth is finishedepidermal cellstype of dermal tissue that secretes cuticlestomatatype of dermal tissue with two guard cells that open and close a poretrichomestype of dermal tissue; protective hair-like appendagesfunction of secondary growthto increase amount of conducting tissue and provide structural support (width); produces wood and occurs in species with cambiumcambiummade up of thin layers of meristematic cells that form cylinders that run the length of the root or stemvascular cambiumtype of cambium that forms between the secondary growth of vascular tissues and generates new layers of cells; produces secondary phloem and secondary xylemsecondary phloemoutside of meristem; functions in sugar transport. with cork cambium tissues it can form barksecondary xyleminside of meristem; functions in water transport and structural support. wood.cork cambiumtype of cambium located near the perimeter of stem and produces new cells primarily to the outsideperidermmade up of cork cambium, cork cells, and phelloderm; protects woody stem during growth and is part of barktree trunk structureas tree grows, only newest xylem tissues transport waterheartwooddark-colored inner xylem regionsapwoodlighter-colored outer xylem regionannual growth rings of treedue to the differing sizes of xylem cells during period of rapid growth and dormancy