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64 terms

Developmental Psychology RM

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Developmental psychology
believes development happens from birth to death
studies changes that occur in people's abilities and behaviors as they age
lifespan vs. child psychologists
child one focuses only on particular earlier portion of the typical life span
Erik Erikson's belief
development occurs across an entire lifetime
normative development
typical sequence of developmental changes for a group of people
cross-sectional method
seeks to compare groups of people of various ages on similar tasks
longitudinal method
involves following a small group of people over a long portion of their lives (more difficult and expensive)
Maturationists
emphasize role of genetically programmed growth and development on the body
environmentalists
believe nature shapes personality and mind
tabula rasa
founded by Locke, means babies are born with a blank slate
continuous vs. discontinuous development
development occurs gradually, consistently, or through growth spurts and leaps of cognition support
critical period
refers to a time d which a skill or ability must develop
collectivist culture
one in which the needs of society are placed before individual needs
individualist cultures
promote personal needs above needs of socity
Stages
patterns of behavior that occur in a fixed sequence
Dimensions of Development
physical, cognitive, social development
Physical development
starts at conception, zygote goes through germinal (cell division) stage, embryonic stage (organ formation), fetal stage (sex difference)
teratogens
various harmful environmental agents that may affect fetal development
neonate
new born baby, nearly helpless
palmar reflex
automatic grabbing of anything within reach
Babinski reflex
toes splaying out when bottom of foot is stroked
heat-turning/ rooting reflex
touching the baby's cheek causes head to turn
Moro reflex
splaying out of the limbs when a loud noise occurs
orienting reflex
orienting themselves to sudden changes in their surroundings
Stereotyped ingestive responses
sucking and smacking lips if given sugar water, will start crying if you give them something sour
Development of nervous system depends on
environmental interaction
Cognitive development
development of learning, memory, reasoning, problem-solving, and related skills
Jean PIaget
proposed influential theory of cognitive development of children, based on Equilibration
Equilibration
child's attempt to reach a balance between what the child sees around them and what cognitive structures bring into situation
assimilation
incorporating new ideas into existing schemas
schema
mental representational model
Accommodation
modifying shcema to include new information
Piaget's developmental stages (Cognitive)
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, concrete operational, and Formal Operational stage
Sensorimotor Stage
first 2 years of life, reflexive reactions, circular reactions (repeated behaviors)
Object Permanence
objects continue to exist when they are outside field of vision
Preoperational Stage
2-7 years using words, lack of logical reasoning
-symbolic thinking (words sub. for objects)
-egocentrism (looking from 1 POV)
-artificial ism (all things are human made)
-Animism (all things are living)
Concrete Operational Stage
7-12, understanding and thinking logically about concrete things
conservation of quantity and volume
Formal Operational
12-adulthood abstract reasoning
metacognition: ability to recognize one's own cognitive processes and adapt when they aren't successful.
Criticisms of Piaget
-studied his own three kids
-underestimated kids' abilities at 4-5 age, some aren't so egocentric
-failure to recognize environmental factors
Vygotsky theory
believed much of development occurs by internalization (gaining knowledge through surrounding contexts)
observed level of ability vs. latent level of capacity
Observed ability rarely lives up to maximum latent potential because ability depends on environmental input which is rarely optimal
Fluid vs. Crystallized intelligence
Fluid: able to think in abstract and symbolic relationships (decreases in adults)
Crystallized: specific knowledge of facts and info (Increases in adults)
wisdom
form of insight into life situations that results in good judgments about difficult life problems
social development
development of ability to interact with others in social structures
Erik Erikson (psychosocial development)
-Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1 year)
-Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-2)
-Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6)
-Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12)
-Identity vs. Role Confusion (teens)
-Intimacy vs. Isolation (20 to 30s)
Generativity vs. Stagnation (30s to death)
Fidelity
truthfulness to one's self
Generativity
be productive in both career and home
Stagnation
isolation
Harry Harlow
social development theory
rhesus monkey infants need comfort and security as much food
Attachment
tendency to prefer specific familiar individuals over others
Mary Ainsworth
studied human infant attachment, saw when parents left and returned most hcildren used parents for support, 7-15% were insecure, acted erratically, and rarely, some did not use parent for support
Authoritarian parenting
-command obedience without debate
-support corporal punishment
kids socially withdrawn, lack decision making skills, and curiosity
Authoritative
-expect compliance to rules but encourage discussion and responsibility
-kids have high self-esteem, independent, articulate
Permissive
-few expectations, non-demanding
kids are irresponsible, impulsive, and generous in social relationships
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross
identified steps people have when they accept death
denial -> anger -> bargaining -> depression -> acceptance
Lawrence Kohlberg
moral development theory
has 3 levels, each has 2 distinct stages
Level I
preconventional morality: (7-10)
1st: avoid punishment, receive rewards
2nd: make judgments that benefit themselves
Level 2
Conventional morality: (10-16)
1st: right and wrong based on approval
2nd: development of conscience
Level 3
Post conventional morality: (16--)
1st: internal morals more important than society
2nd: look at abstract ethical principles
Carol Gilligan
developed a revised version of Kohlberg theory stressing caring relationships as central to moral progress
Psychosexual development
development of awareness of one's own sexuality
gender typing
(2-7) acquisition of sex-related roles
gender constancy
gender is a fixed, unchangeable characteristic
Oedipal vs. Electra conflict
Oedipal: boys likes moms, fears dads
Electra: girls like ddads, fear moms
Albert Bandura
sexual roles could be acquired through social or vicairous learing