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44 terms

Exam 3 Ch 13

STUDY
PLAY
The area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered is the
Central Business District
The process of change in the use of a house, from simgle family owner occupancy to abandonment is
Filtering
Why do U.S. central cities face fiscal problems?
Low-income people are concentrated there
Compared to whites, African-Americans in the U.S. cities are more likely to be where?
Clusteres in inner-city neighborhoods
What is Sprawl?
The development of new housing sites not contiguous to the existing built-up area
People are attracted to suburbs in part because suburbs typically are characterized by what?
Private land surrounding the house
The largest number of trips is made for what purpose?
Work
Compared to the private automobile, public transportation offers more what?
Energy efficiency
Which of the following models describe a city as a comples structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve.
Multiple nuclei theory
Which models describes North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban, residential, and business areas tied together by a beltway or a ring road?
Peripheral Model
Most urban residents in the United States live in central cities rather than suburbs. (ToF)
False, 60% live in suburbs while 20% live in central cities.
According to opinion polls, most Europeans and Americans prefer to live in suburbs. ToF
True
Sprawling Homogenous suburbs have developed in the twentieth century. ToF
True
Relatively wealthy individuals live in the center of most cities in the world outside of North America. ToF
True
Suburban sprawl has resulted in the loss of most of the prime agricultural lan in the U.S. (ToF)
False, In reality, sprawl has little impact on the total farmland in the U.S.
Common to all three models of Urban structure, the innermost zone is labeled the _______.
Central business district, CBD
A process of converting a neighborhood from low-income to middle-class is _____.
Gentrification
The multiple nuclei theory best explains why different neighborhoods of a city attract people of different_____.
Ethnicity or races
Although illegal, some banks will draw lines on a map to identify inner city areas in which they will refuse to loan money, this is called____.
Redlining
How has the automobile changed the cultural landscape of cities (= form of urban areas) in the last 80 years or so?The answer should look at two different phenomena.
The automobile has decreased the population density of cities and allowed residents to move further away from the city while still engaging in the various activities associated with and located within the city, e.g., jobs, cultural acitivities and shopping. This transformation has occurred, because the automobile has increased people's mobility and therefore freedom of movement. Another change has been the increased demand for roads and places to park vehicles when utilitizing the city demanding the building of tunnels and bridges in addition to wide, often six-laned beltways.
The rapid growth of cities in the LDC's is a reversal of the historical trend in Western Europe and North America because
Most of the growth in the Urban Population reults from high natural increases.
What characteristic was not part of Louis Wirth's definition of a city?
Socially homogeneous people
What behavior distinguishes an urban settlement from a rural one?
Social groups compete to occupy the same territory, and the stronger group dominates
Urban settlements can be physically defined in one of which three ways?
Continuously built-up areas
Which model grows outward from a central area in a series of rings?
Concentric Zone Model
Which model develops its best housing along a corridor extending from downtown to the outer edge of the city?
Sector model
Where would the information come from to make effective use of the three models?
Census tracts of the census bureau
The sector model of urban structure recongizes the importance of what primary factor in the development of the city in the united states?
Transportation
Of the four urban models discusses, which was the oldest?
Concentric zone
Unlike cities in the Unites States, poor people in Latin America cities tend to live:
In the suburbs
Urban Populations have begun to rise in recent years in LDCs because of the migration of rural residents to the cities looking for jobs ToF
True
Seven of the ten most populous urban areas are in MDCs.ToF
False, they are in LDCs
More than 95 percent of workers in developed societies hold "urban" types of jobs. ToF
True
The main distinguishing factor geographers look for between urban and rural areas is physical definitions.
ToF
True
The term city defines an urban settlement not necessarily incorporated into an independent unit. ToF
False
The U.S. Bureau of the Census and geodemographers measure the functional area of a city by its metropolitan statistical area (MSA). ToF
True
An MSA is an almost perfect tool for measuring the functional area of a city. ToF
False
Two adjacent MSAs with overlapping commuting patterns are combined into a consolidated metropolitan statistical area (CMSA). ToF
True
A major reason for the existence of so many squatter settlements in the LDCs is related to a lack of jobs in the large urban areas. ToF
True
The major physical problem faced by inner-city neighborhoods in the United States is the poor condition of the housing stock, most of which was built before 1940. ToF
True
Annexation is the process of legally adding land area to a city.
True
Edge cities are nodes of consumer and business services.
True
According to the density gradient, the number of houses per unit of land diminishes as distance from the center city increases.
True
Suburbanization makes people more dependent on transportation for access to work, shopping, and leisure activities.
True