Create an account
What is Grave's Disease?
hyperthyroidism: thyroid stimulating immunoglobins stimulate thyroid in addition to TSH = continuous stimulation of thyroid occurs
What are the thryoid stimulating immunoglobins and what do they bind to?
antibodies against TSH receptor (IgG)
These antibodies bind to ( ) receptors and elevate levels of ( ). This in turn increases synthesis and secretion of ( ).
TSH receptors, cAMP, T3/T4
What physical changes occur in thyroid gland with Grave's?
hypertrophy/hyperplasia = hyperthyroidism and goiter (enlarged thyroid)
Why does diffuse enlargement of the thyroid (goiter) result?
no synthesis of T3/T4 due to lack of iodine = no negative feedback to anterior pituatary to inhibit release of TSH
Does calcitonin have to be given after thyroidectomy? Why?
no: calcitonin has no major effect on blood calcium levels
If you see tumor cells surrounded by extracellular deposition of amyloid in thyroid what is it?
C-cell carcinoma-thyroid medullary carcinoma
How does PTH stimulate release of calcium from bone?
binds to osteoblasts which in turn stimulate osteoclasts to reabsorb bone and mobilize calcium and phosphate
What does PTH do in renal?
-prevents calcium excretion and promotes phosphate excretion
-also increases calcium absorption in GI tract
What are the symptoms?
-stones: urinary tract stones
-bones: demineralized bones
-groans: pain from stones, fractured bones, and constipation (decreased neuronal excitation)
What are the four layers of adrenal gland and what is the mnemonic?
4 S's: salt, sugar, sex, sympathetic
-z. fasciculta: glucocorticoids
-z. reticularis: androgens
-medulla: norepinephrine and epinephrine
What distinguishes z. fasciculata?
-more cytoplasma and abundant lipid droplets
-cells arranged in parallel plates seperated by capillaries
What does z. fasciculata release and under what influence?
cortisol: under influence of ACTH (exerts negative feedback on ACTH)
What is cortisol needed for?
-normal carb metabolism and maintanence of blood sugar
-maintenance of blood pressure
what happens if there is excess androgens during fetal development?
virilzation in females (enlarged clitoris, fusion of labioscrotal folds)
What is lost in addisons?
all adrenal steroids are effected - mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids and androgens
Adrenal cortical failure can also occur secondary to failure of ( ) secretion. In this case, ( ) are not effected as they are under influence of ( ).
ACTH: mineralocorticoids, RAAS
Besides a tumor, what else can cause cushings?
pharmacological administration of glucocorticoids: in this ACTH will be negatively inhibited by doses of cortisol
Melatonin induces rhythmic changes in hypothalamus, adenophysis and gonads in response to ( ).
changes in light received by retina
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together