Bio Review Packet

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asexual
1 parent and genetically identical offspring
sexual
2 parents, offspring are a combination of mom and dad's genes which leads to variation in the population
meiosis
aka gametogenesis
meiosis
produces haploid gametes
gametes
sex cells
skin cells and all body cells
have the diploid number of chromosomes (2n)
sex cells
have the haploid/monoploid number of chromosomes
genetic mutations
in gametes can be passed on to offspring
when exposed to radiation
we wear a lead cover to protect the testes and ovaries in order to prevent mutations
testes structures
which meiosis occurs to produce haploid/monoploid sperm cells
vas deferens
the structure in which sperm is transported from the testes
urethra
the structure that connects to the vas deferens to complete transport of sperm out of the male's body
urethra
a pathway for urine out of the male's body so it is shared between the reproductive and excretory system
ovaries
structures in which meiosis occurs to produce haploid egg cells
oviduct
the site of fertilization AKA union of gametes
uterus
the site of implantation and development for the embryo
amniotic sac
contains amniotic fluid which surrounds embryo/fetus throughout its development to protect it from shock
placenta
the organ that forms during pregnancy to transport oxygen and nutrients from mom to fetus and wastes from fetus to mom
placenta
allows for materials to be exchanged without blood mixing
placenta
prevent some harmful substances (specific viruses) from crossing to the fetus
hormones
regulate the menstrual cycle
female hormones
estrogen/progesterone/FSH/LH
ovulation
process by which a mature egg is released from the ovary
menstruation
process by which the uterine lining is shed from the body when fertilization does NOT occur
union of sperm and egg
occurs in oviduct (fallopian tube) in humans
mammals, birds, and reptiles
have adaptations for internal fertilization on land
fish and amphibians
perform external fertilization in water
identical twins
arise from 1 sperm fertilizing 1 egg which eventually splits into 2 embryos
fraternal twins
arise from 2 sperm fertilizing 2 eggs
most mammals
have internal development of offspring
marsupials
mammals that give birth to underdeveloped young and complete development inside mom's pouch
reptiles, birds, fish, & amphibians
have external development of young
zygote
divides by mitosis or cleavage
embryo
Develops specialized cells, tissues, and organs by the process of differentiation
cell location
determines what hormones a cell is exposed to during embryonic development which in turn activate specific genes causing cell differentiation
monoploid
half the number the normal number of chromosomes
meiosis has
2 divisions resulting in four monoploid cells
homologous pairs
a pair of chromosomes that carry corresponding genes for the same traits
male gonad
testes
male gamete
sperm
scrotum
pouch that holds two testes away from the body
female gonad
ovary
uterus
muscular organ where embryo implants
fallopian tubes
where fertilization takes place
vagina
place where sperm is deposited, baby birth canal
male hormone
testosterone
fertilization
sperm meets egg forms zygote
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