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17 terms

Heredity and Genetics

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heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
trait
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
genetics
the scientific study of heredity
fertilization
the process in which an egg cell and a sperm cell join to form a new organism
purebred
the offspring of many generations that have the same traits
gene
the set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait
allele
the different forms of a gene
dominant allele
an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive allele
an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
hybrid
an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
probability
a number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur
Punnett square
a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
phenotype
an organism's physical appearance or visible traits
genotype
an organism's genetic makeup or allele combinations
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
codominance
a condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive