A2 Edexcel geography - energy security
Edexcel A2 Unit 3 Energy Security
Terms in this set (97)
What is ANWR
Organisation to preserve the Artic ecosystem.
Naturally occurring mixtures of sand or clay, water and dense form of petroleum called bitumen.
The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries e.g. Saudi Arabia.
This exists when people simply cannot afford resource, even when it is readily available.
This exists when shortages occur because demand exceeds supply.
The uneven distribution or location across a landscape or surface of, for example, population.
The migration of rural populations into towns and cities. It indicates a change of employment structure from agriculture and cottage industries to mass production and service industries.
This is water which is transferred by trading in crops and services which require large amounts of water for their production. By importing a tonne of wheat from a water-rich area, a water-stressed area saves 1000m3 of water.
This is the extra cost built into the price of oil in case of disruption. It increases when there is geopolitical tension.
Carrot stick policies
They try to reduce energy consumption and increase energy efficiency. e.g. Kyoto Protocol
Radical and new technologies
They try to provide the technological fix using new technologies which are sustainable.
International Energy Authority
Emission controls (carrot stick)
An example of this is the Kyoto Protocol
Emission trading (carrot stick)
Also known as carbon trading which is an agreement that allows countries which had made greater reductions than the target and so were able to sell their surplus savings to countries that are over their target.
Green taxing (carrot stick)
A method of decreasing carbon emission. In the UK, they are VEDS which tax vehicles according to the levels of emissions. There is also a charge for plastic bags. The UK government has raised £1 billion in revenue.
Offshore wind turbines (radical)
They cost 50% more than regular turbines but wind speeds are often twice the rate. This stops visual pollution and reduces NIMBY.
Tax it down option
Green taxes could encourage efficiency and so emission would fall as efficiency rises.
This is where houses generate own renewable energy. This would diversify the energy mix, reduce emissions and increase self-reliance.
Polluters pay principle
This is enforced by law, e.g. the EU Commission.
This is where there is a switch to renewable sources and avoids economic uncertainties but also negative impacts of fossil fuels.
Amount of energy consumed in a process or system. Patterns in various sectors are changeable.
Can only be burned once to produce energy, finite supply that will take a significant amount of geological time to be replaced.
Capable of natural regeneration on a human timescale, provide almost continuous flows of energy. Include; water, wind, solar, geothermal heat and tides.
Primary energy source
Energy found in natural resources. Eg. Coal, crude oil, sunlight, wind, rivers, vegetation and uranium (nuclear).
What percentage of India's population live in rural areas?
How was the UK self-sufficient in 1980s-1990s?
UK was able to extract gas and oil from the North Sea
What year did the UK become a net importer of gas?
What percentage of gas imports could account for total demand by 2020?
What percentage of UK's primary energy supply does coal account for?
When was the Nabucco pipeline planned?
What does the Nabucco pipeline transport? How far?
natural gas over 3,000km
When did Russia cut off gas supplies to Ukraine?
In 2008 how many nuclear reactors were supply what percentage of world's electricity in 31 countries?
In 2008 around 429 nuclear reactors in 31 countries were supplying 15% of world's electricity
What percentage of global electricity supply does wind power produce?
Indian-owned Oil and Natural Gas Company (ONGC) invested how much in overseas exploration between 2000-05?
Name the 12 members of OPEC.
Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Libya, Algeria, Nigeria, Angola, Venezuela and Ecuador
Name the 3 aims of OPEC.
Protect the interests of member countries, to stablise oil prices and to ensure all efficient, economic and regular supply of oil to consuming nations
How much of the world's oil reserves does OPEC have?
What percentage of world's oil production was OPEC responsible for in 2008?
Name the top 6 oil companies.
Saudi Aramco, Exxon Mobil, NIOC, PDV, BP and Royal Dutch Shell
What percentage of the world's unexploited oil abd gas reserves does the Arctic region contain?
Primary energy that has been converted into a more convenient form, usually electricity
Primary Energy Type
Using heat within the earth to generate energy. Generally water is pumped down to where there is magma near the surface, the magma heats the water, and then steam can be used to generate electricity
-Not available everywhere
Technological change has has a major impact. For example, offshore oil rigs can now drill in much deeper water than 30 years ago. Public perception has also become increasingly important.
Supply and consumption of energy
Fossil fuels dominate the supply of global energy, providing 82% of global primary energy supply in 2011. In contrast, HEP accounted for 2% and nuclear energy for about 5% with 11% coming from renewables other than large hydro
The renewable and non-renewable energy sources available within the country
Kenya's energy consumption is increasingly rapidly, but only a small percentage of the population have access to clean, efficient energy systems. Most people burn hand-gathered solid fuels such as wood and dung for indoor cooking. The way of producing energy may be light in terms of its carbon footprint, but it is know to cause serious health problems.
-Until recently, Kenya has had no fossil fuel reserves, though oil has just been discovered
-Only 1 in 4 Kenyans have access to electricity
-Kenya has both geothermal and HEP stations
-Erratic rainfall has limited the production of HEP, though it provides 50% of Kenya's electricity
-Most of Kenya's energy is produced through the use of fuelwood
-The biggest wind farm in Africa is currently under construction in Kenya (365 turbines being built near Lake Turkana- £533 million- provide 25% of Kenya's current installed power)
For the fossil fuel, name the approximate run-out dates
Coal - 2088
Oil - 2067
Gas - 2075
Fossil Fuels Global Energy Consumption Percentage
Coal: Economic Impacts (1+,1-)
+Bring more income into developing countries (China)
-Mine explosions/concaving leads to loss of money
Coal: Social Impacts (2-,2+)
-Ruins landscapes, dissatisfies public and homeowners
-Miners are paid very low wages + horrible working conditions
+Reduces unemployment (50 million in China)
Coal: Environmental Impacts (2-)
-Increases rate of global warming (CO2 emissions) through both its use and being transported
-Destruction of wild habitats can force species into becoming extinct
Oil: Economic Impacts (1-,1+)
-Big losses made if oil spills occur (Exxon Valdez lost over US$6 billion because of it's oil spill in 1989; lost 11 million gallons of oil and had to pay for cleaning up the area and compensating 11,000 Alaskan citizens for damage done to their homes)
+Countries such as Saudi Arabia, most notably, have boomed their economy (have US$350 billion in Petrodollars)
Oil: Social Impacts (2+,1-)
+Reduces unemployment (9 million around the world)
+Workers are well paid (some almost $100,000 per annum)
-Increases number of cancer cases through water contamination
Oil: Environmental Impacts (3-)
-Increases rate of global warming through burning (more CO2 emissions are released)
-Kills marine species easily, particularly during oil spills as oil is extremely difficult to extract once it's in the ocean/sea
-Put fragile ecosystems at danger (Arctic)
Natural Gas: Economic Impacts (2+)
+Growth of BRIC economies such as Russia, the largest exporter of natural gas in and to Europe, who provide supplies to 12 European countries via pipelines
+Reduces regional poverty in Russia + unemployment
Natural Gas: Social Impacts (1+,1-)
+Employs more than 3 million people around the world
-Creates political tension between countries (e.g. tension increased between Russia and Ukraine after Russia shut off the gas supply to Ukraine in 2006 after they couldn't give back the money they owed Russia)
Natural Gas: Environmental Impacts (2-)
-Puts marine biodiversity under threat if transported as LNG, particularly as it's becoming more common for natural gas to be shipped this way (pipelines are becoming less dependable for political reasons)
-Increases rate of global warming (CO2 emissions)
Wind: Economic Impacts (1-,1+)
-Expensive to set up turbines (approximately US$50,000 for one which could power one home)
+Cost of getting electricity is good value for money
Wind: Social Impacts (1+,2-)
+Eco-friendly, people feel good about not directing harming the environment
-Make areas/landscapes look unnattractive
-Noise pollution (people can struggle to sell homes too)
Wind: Environmental Impacts (3+)
+Doesn't release CO2 (mitigating climate change)
+Renewable, and therefore, reliable
+Doesn't affect either animal or human health as far as air pollution and emissions are concerned
Solar: Economic Impacts (2-)
-Expensive to set up panels on homes (US$10,500 to support one household)
-Homeowners could potentially lose their value for money if climate change alters weather patterns
Solar: Social Impacts (2+)
+Eco-friendly as it reduces one's carbon footprint
+Can potentially save you money in the long term
Solar: Environmental Impacts (1+,1-)
+Doesn't release CO2 emissions
-Can take up large spaces of land (loss of habitat or crops)
HEP: Economic Impacts (2-)
-Expensive to install/build dams
-Expensive to repair/rebuild if it faults
HEP: Social Impacts (1+,1-)
+Reduces unemployment in the building/maintenance (e.g. Three Gorges Dam construction in China employed 250,000 people)
-People are likely to have to move homes (more land will be flooded as a consequence of the dam construction)
HEP: Environmental Impacts (4-)
-Loss of habitats.
-Drowns plants and vegetation which then releases CO2
-Can cause tremors/earthquakes due to the building of dams increasing stress on land (Killari, India killed 10,000 people in 1993)
-More pressure on land elsewhere as people have to relocate homes (e.g. Three Gorges Dam displaced almost 2 million people)
Nuclear: Economic Impacts (2-)
-Costs a lot to extract uranium (advanced technology)
-Companies spend a lot of money on workers wages (lose out on extreme profits)
Nuclear: Social Impacts (1+,2-)
+Workers are paid very good money as compensation for radiation exposure
-Workers exposed to harmful radiaition (increase in the chance of cancer)
-Fear of nuclear explosions (after both Chernobyl disaster in 1986 and Fukushima disaster in 2011)
Nuclear:Environmental Impacts (3+1-)
+Doesn't release CO2
+Recyclable (if managed carefully)
+Rarely threatens the environment on both a national and global scale (only done by disasters, which are very rare)
-Long-term impacts on species (mutations and poisoning)
3 Countries with the largest coal reserves
3 Countries with the largest coal production
USA (28%) Russia (19%) China (14%)
China (47%) USA (13%) India (8%)
3 Countries with the largest oil reserves
3 Countries with the largest oil production
Venezuela (25%) Saudi Arabia (22%) Iran (13%)
Russia (14%) Saudi Arabia (13%) USA (12%)
3 Countries with the largest gas reserves
3 Countries with the largest gas production
Russia (25%) Iran (16%) Qatar (13%)
USA (20%) Russia (19%) Qatar (5%)
Which country is the second largest producer of nuclear energy?
The world's leading fuel with 32.9% of global energy consumption
The largest LNG exporter in the world - 32% of global exports
3 Countries with the largest nuclear production
3 Countries with the largest nuclear reserves
USA, France, Russia
Australia (40%) Canada (15%) Kazakhstan (13%)
What factors determine Energy Security? (TED-PP)
What is Energy Security? How do you measure Energy Security?
Being able to access reliable and affordable sources of energy that meet your energy demands.
Energy Security Index (ESI):
The higher the index, the lower the risk and therefore, the greater the energy security.
What are the Energy Security calculations based on? (AID)
-Availability -> amount and longevity of each country's oil and gas supplies
-Diversity -> Range of energy sources a country uses
-Intensity -> How dependent their economy is on oil & gas
Name two facts about the Strait of Hormuz
-20% of oil traded worldwide travels through this Choke Point
-Qatar exports 2 trillion cubic feet per year of LNG (20% trade for Natural Gas)
Energy is the 'Capacity to do work'. This work can take various forms and is vital to human survival and development. As societies become more sophisticated, they consume more energy, they exploit a wider range of energy types and the consumption patterns in the various sectors change.
Recyclable energy resources are defined as those where fuel that has been used once can be used again to generate power. At present, only nuclear power is classed as a recyclable resource as nuclear reprocessing can make uranium waste reusable.
Primary Energy Type
The use of organic matter to create energy. Energy sources include biofuels (e.g. ethanol from sugar cane or corn, biodisel from vegetable oils and animal fats), wood, biogas and organic wastes (e.g. manure)
+Range of products
-Reduces land for food production
COAL, OIL AND GAS
The UK still has large reserves of coal but our cheapest reserves have already been exploited. We also have reserves of oil and gas but production has been declining since 1999, and they are finite. It is predicted that North Sea reserves could run out by 2030.
Approx. 18% of UK energy is from nuclear.
However, many of our nuclear power stations are coming to the end of their lives, with all but 1 of the UK's 16 reactors being retired by 2023.
Up to 8 new nuclear plants planned. However, the first new plant at Hinkley Point in Somerset will not be online until 2023. Over its 60 year lifespan, it is expected to contribute £2 billion to the economy, providing over 30,000 jobs
The UK has great potential to develop many renewable sources such as HEP, wind, tidal and bio-fuels but these require more investment. We are the wealthiest European country in terms of wind and wave energy.
NICs and RICs
It is the rapidly growing economies that are increasing their energy demand by the fastest rate. China alone has accounted for 1/3 of the growth in global oil demand since 2000. China passed Japan as the world's 2nd largest user of oil in 2004. Its average daily consumption is about twice its domestic production, and so its oil imports doubled between 1999 and 2004. However, oil consumption is still only 1/15 of that in the USA. As this gap narrows it will have a considerable impact on global demand. The demand for oil in China is expected to increase by 5-7% per year. If this occurs, China will take over from the USA as the world's largest consumer of oil by 2023. Rising demand is concentrated in the large industrialised cities which are located mainly in the eastern coastal zone. Other rapidly industrialising countries such as India, Malaysia and South Korea are also recording high increases in energy demand.
Most developing countries struggle to fund their energy requirements. Energy demand is influenced by a number of factors such as the rate of economic development and the rate of population growth. There is a strong correlation between GNP per capita and energy use. In poor countries it is the high and middle income groups that generally have enough money to purchase sufficient energy and they also tend to live in locations where electricity is available. Around the world, 2 billion people lack access to household electricity services. It has been estimated that connecting people to electricity services would add only 1% extra to emissions of greenhouse gases. In the poorest countries of the world, traditional biomass often accounts for 90% or more of total energy consumption.
Sources of demand
Transport: nearly 1/2 of the world's oil production; home and commercial properties: a little less than 1/3 - mainly for heating.
Generate electricity: > 2/3 coal production is used in thermal power stations.
Much of natural gas output is used for the same purpose, along with the heating of industrial, commercial and residential properties.
A shortage of energy which interrupts domestic supplies
Quantities of oil that geologically and engineering information indicates future known reservoirs
The reserves remaining at the end of any year divided by the production in that year.
When a country decides to place part or all of its natural resources under state ownership
The flow of energy from producer to consumer. Supply routes include: pipelines + shipping routes.
Is measured by the level of energy imports as a proportion of total energy consumption
The difference between secured energy supply and projected future energy needs (demand).
The theoretical year in which global (or an individual oil well or country) oil production reaches its highest level of production. After which it enters into sustained decline
A system by which countries and organizations receive permits to produce a specified amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, which they may trade with others.
Carbon Capture Storage (CCS) (radical)
capture up to 90% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions produced from the use of fossil fuels in electricity generation and industrial processes, preventing the carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere