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the brain and spinal cord develope from the ------neural tube


the brain vesicle gives rise to the midbrain and cerbral aqueduct


which of the following is not a major region of the brain

cauda equina

which of the following brain structures consists of the thalamus hypothalamus and epithalamus


which ofthe following meninges has two layers

cranhial dura mater

this extension of the dura mater separates the two hemishperes of the cerebrum

falx cerebri

the adult brain represents only what percent of the total body weight


which of the following describes a function of cerebrospinal fluid 1. mechanical protection 2. ph homeostasis 3. circulation

all of the above

cerebrospinal fluid carries small amounts of chemicals like glucose from the --------- to neurons and neuroglia


this protects the brain by preventing the movement of harmful substances and pathogens from the blood int the brain tissue

blood brain barrier

this is a narrow fluid filled cavity foudn along the midline superior to the hypothalamus and between the right and left halves of the thalamus

third ventricle

cerebrospinal fluid is reabsorbed through these fingerlike projections found in the dural venous sinuses

arachnoid villi

this is a netlike region of white and gray matter that extend throughout the brainstem and functions to help maintain consciousness

reticular formation

this structure in the brain contains centers responsible for the the startle reflex in response to loud sounds

inferior colliculus

Pyraminds are

white matter protrusions found on the medulla oblongata

medullary nuclei are 1. masses of gray matter in the medulla oblongata 2 masses of white matter in the medulla oblongata 3decussations of the pyramids

1 only

This region of teh brain contains pneumotaxic and apneustic areas that help control respirtaion


The medial lemnisus is a band of white matter that extnds through 1. the medulla oblongata 2. pons 3. midbrain


This portion of the cerebellum contributes to equilbrium and balance

flocculonodular lobe

This region of the brain servbes as the maor relay station for most sensory impulses that reach the primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex form the spinal cord and brain stem


Which of teh following regions of the brain contain the pineal gland


during brain deveelopment the gyri of the cerebrum are formed because

the gray matter grows faster than the underlying white matter

this portion of the limbic system lies between the hippocampus and the parahippocampus gyrus

dentate gyrus

Which of teh following functional areas of the cerebrum is responsible for conscious movements of the body

primary motor area

Which of the following functional areas of the cerebrum is responsible for speech

brocas area

which of the following cranial nerves carries sensory information coming from the nasal cavity to the olfactory area of the cerebrum

cranial nerve 1

Cranial nerve V is also know as teh -----nerve


Which of the following cranial nerves is primarily responsible for changing facial expressions


hand prefernece when writing or throwing is an example of

hemispheric lateralization

This type of bnrain wave occurs at regular intervals when a person is awake bu not when a person is sleeping

beta waves

Brain waves that appear in adults and children during periods of emotional stress are called

theta waves

Brain waves that generally appear during periods of senosry inmput and mental activity are called

beta waves

Brain waves that appear during sleep are

delta waves

Blood flows to the brain through the

internal carotid and vertebral internal jugular

Which of the following statements best describes the structure of the blood brain barrier that provides its functional characteristics

tight junctions tightly seal endothelial cells of capillaries in the brain

A deep indentation found along the medial plane that separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the

longitudinal fissure

These three areas of gray matter found in each erbral hemisphere are important in helping to control the initiation and termination of skeletal muscle movements

basal nuclei

Which of the foolwing terms is used to dsignante an effector that is innerbvated by both the parasympathetic and sympathetiv divisions of the ANS

dual innervation

The largest autonomic plexus is called the

celiac plexus

This autonomic plexus is located anterior to the fifth lumbar vertebra and serves the pelvic viscera

hypogastric plexus

these ganglia contain the cell bodies of the parasympathetiv postganglionc nerurons that serve the parotid salivary gland

otic ganglia

The two main neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system are

norepinephrine and acetylcholine

which of the following are types of cholinergic receptors

nicotinic and muscarinic receptors

which disorder is characterized by an exaggerated response of the sympathetic division of the ANS that occurs in most individuals with spinal cord injury6 at or above T6

autonomic dysreflexia

which disorder is characterized by the digits becoming ischemic after exposure to cold or emotional stress

Raynauds phenomenon

Which disorder is characterized by spontaneious pain painful hypersensitivity to light touch and excessice coldness adn sweating in the affected area

reflex sympatheic dystrophy

Which disorder involves the loss of sypathetic innervation to one side of the face due to ingeerited mutation injury or disease

horners syndrome

which division of ANS innervates the sweat glands and the hair follicles


Which endocrine gland is directly innervated by sympathetic preganglionic axons

adrenal gland

Which of the following types of adrenrgic receptors are only found in brown adipose tissue where their activation stimulates heat productino


which of the following statements describes a common response of an autonomic effector during the fight or flight response

the pupils of the eyes dilate

which of the folliwng lists the components of an autonomic reflex arc in the proper sequence of activation

receptor sensory neuron integrating center motr neuron effector

Which of the following regionsof the brain serve as the major control and integration center of the ANS


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