195 terms

child psychology

Which of the following is the foundation for socialization?
Baby Elise is irritable, does not follow regular patterns of eating and sleeping, and has intense reactions to what goes on in her environment. These are characteristics of which kind of temperament?
According to Erikson, a child who develops a predominance of basic trust will have the characteristic of
Kendrick has been awake in his crib for a long time. He produces two or three drawn-out cries with no prolonged breath-holding. He is probably
By nine months of age, about ____ percent of U.S. infants are in some form of nonparental child care arrangement
The establishment of basic trust verus basic mistrust in a child's personality occurs between __________ of age.
birth and 18 months
Sohi is 2 years old and insists on dressing herself even if her clothes are put on wrong. According to Erikson, which of the following stages is she in
autonomy versus shame and doubt
The earliest smile, a reflex smile, appears
shortly after birth.
According to Ainsworth, attachment forms primarily as a result of
consistency of responsiveness by the mother.
During what Erikson calls the crisis of basic trust versus basic mistrust, children
determine whether or not the world can be relied on.
Temperament is
one's style of approaching people and situations.
Self-regulation is
the control of a child's own behavior to conform to social expectations.
The longest-lasting relationship a person will likely have is with their
The cognitive understanding by infants that they are functioning beings, separate from the rest of their world, is referred to as
Which of the following children is probably NOT experiencing a problem of "fit" between temperament and environment?
Aaron is a quiet and fairly inactive child. He lives in a small apartment with his older parents
Emotions such as empathy and pride
are related to the development of self-awareness
Constructive conflict between siblings
can be an opportunity for growth.
In the "Strange Situation" test, Tony rarely cries when his mother leaves and is not eager to greet her when she returns. He appears to be
Sometimes laughter helps babies discharge tension, such as
Leah cries every time her mother leaves the house. It is so disturbing that her mother is thinking of giving up her part-time job. Leah's distress when a familiar caregiver leaves is called
separation anxiety.
Which of the following is a good way to measure attachment between a mother and a baby?
the reaction of the baby when the mother returns
The best way to respond to an infant who is crying is to
respond regularly with tender, soothing care
Our image of ourselves is called our
Dr. Lakivani is doing research on childhood attachment using Ainsworth's "Strange Situation," whereby a baby is observed in a room with
the mother and a stranger in different combinations.
According to Erikson, shame and doubt
need to be balanced with autonomy.
Emotions are __________ reactions to experiences that are associated with physiological and behavioral changes.
Lucy is a quiet infant who is mild in her responses, both positive and negative. She shows a distinct dislike for new situations, but eventually adjusts and enjoys new things. Thomas and Chess would classify Lucy as a(n) __________ child.
A very securely attached child generally grows up to be
A government program providing medical assistance to low income families is called
In the United States, the leading cause of death among children today is
Pedro has gotten proficient in kicking the soccer ball into the goal net. This ability relies on his __________ motor skills.
Shirley has a child who sleepwalks and has night terrors. Given the recommendations provided in your textbook, Shirley should do all of the following except
wake the child during sleepwalking and night terrors
Enuresis is the medical term for
Children can get lead in their bloodstreams from lead-contaminated food and water, and from inhaling dust from lead-based paints in schools and homes. To reduce the effects of lead exposure parents can
all of the above
Which of the following statements regarding homelessness and children is correct?
all of the above
Children are required by law to ride in specially designed car seats or seatbelt restraints in
all states including the District of Columbia
Which of the following statements regarding early childhood sleep behaviors is false
Walking and talking during sleep is unusual in early childhood.
Compared to children in the United States, children in other cultures get __________ sleep, and the timing of sleep is __________.
about the same amount of; often different
By what age are all the primary, or deciduous, teeth in place?
Environmental contaminants may play a role in certain childhood issues such as
all of the above
Which of the following statements about children's exposure to smoking is correct
all of the above
A clear preference for handedness is usually evident by ___ months of age.
Jean-Paul has a young son and wants to make certain that he is as safe as possible in their automobile. Which of the following concerns should he pay attention to?
all of the above
As preschoolers develop gross and fine motor skills, they continually merge abilities they already have with those that they are acquiring in order to produce more complex abilities. Such combinations of skills are known as
systems of action.
Jack has occasionally been quite upset when he awakens in the morning. He tells his parents that he dreamed he was being chased by the large dog that lives down the street. Jack is experiencing
Which of the following is NOT recommended when trying to encourage healthy eating habits in early childhood?
Insist that the child clean his or her plate.
Poor children are at a higher-than-average risk for which of the following health problems
all of the above
Four-year-old Sam loves high fat foods. Although Sam is not overweight, his parents want him to have a healthy diet. Which of the following statements about dietary fat and preschoolers is correct?
Children over age 2 should obtain about 30% of their total calories from fat.
Which statement about handedness is correct?
There appears to be a single gene for right-handedness.
Most deaths from injuries, especially among preschool aged children, in the United States
occur at home.
Adam is getting pretty good with the joystick that guides his favorite computer game. This activity relies on his __________ motor skills.
During early childhood, youngsters grow ___ inches per year
2 to 3
Bonnie has apparently awakened from a deep sleep. She is staring ahead and breathing quickly. When asked if she has had a bad dream, she does not answer but promptly lies back down and falls asleep. The next morning, she has no recollection of the experience. Bonnie experienced
a sleep terror.
Compared with infants, children in the early childhood stage
require fewer calories per pound of body fat.
Excessive weight gain during the early childhood period is a result of
all of the above
Although the United States is one of the richest countries in the world, in 2002, nearly ___% of children in the United States lived in poverty
Jane's "baby teddy" is kept in her mother's car to help calm her down when she has to go to daycare. "Baby teddy" is her __________ object.
Which of the following is NOT a test used to measure the intelligence of children?
Gardner-Denver Test of Multiple Intelligences
Sarah was mean to her brother, Adam. When Adam got sick, Sarah concluded that she made her brother sick. This is an example of
transductive reasoning.
Ena is an average 3-year-old. By this age we would expect her to be able to use about __________ different words.
900 to 1,000
To understand what is on the printed page, children first need to master certain prereading skills. The development of these skills is called
emergent literacy.
__________ is the ability to understand that others have mental states, and the ability to judge others' feelings and intentions.
Social cognition
Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development describes scaffolding as
all of the above
According to Piaget, children first understand the distinction between appearance (what seems to be) and reality (what is) at about the age of __________ years.
5 to 6
Speech intended to be understood by a listener is called __________ speech
Renee pours a glass of milk for her doll telling her mother that her doll is very thirsty. The attribution of life to a nonliving object is called
Sheena knows what her mother will think when she comes into the room and sees the mess that she and her friends have made. Sheena's awareness of her mental processes and those of other people is called
theory of mind.
__________ is the ability to identify something encountered previously, and __________ is the ability to reproduce knowledge from memory.
Recognition; recall
__________ is memory that produces a script of familiar routines to guide behavior.
Generic memory
Danielle is 7 years old and is beginning to develop memories that will form her personal life history. These memories are specific and long lasting. They are __________ memories
Timothy does not understand that transforming the shape of a liquid (by pouring it from one container into another) does not change the amount of liquid. This represents which limitation in preoperational thought?
Emma, age 3, runs into the room to show her parents a picture she has drawn. While holding the paper with the drawing facing her, she says, "See my picture?" Her parents, able to see only the back of the paper, ask to see the drawing. Emma just holds the paper closer to them without turning it around. Emma's behavior demonstrates
Piaget's terminology, a mental representation to which a person has attached meaning is called a(n)
refers to the practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes.
A child's ability to understand what a new word means, despite hearing it only once or twice, is called
fast mapping.
At preschool, Ms. Thomas often feels as though she has spent the morning with twice the number of students that she actually has. It seems that everyone has invited their imaginary friend to spend the morning. Which of the following statements regarding imaginary companions is false?
Boys are more likely than girls to have imaginary companions.
Preoperational children tend to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others, leading to illogical conclusions. Piaget called this tendency
Young children are unable to see things from another's point of view. Piaget describes this as
When information is needed, David searches his mind looking for the answer and then writes it down. David's search is referred to as
The idea that children construct autobiographical memories through conversations with adults about shared events is called the __________ model
social interaction
Information being encoded or retrieved is kept in a short-term "storehouse" which is referred to as
working memory.
Because of its lack of reliability, __________ memory has become an important issue in lawsuits involving charges of child abuse.
When children talk aloud to themselves with no intent of communicating with anyone else, their speech is referred to as
Between the ages of 2 and 7, children enter Piaget's __________ stage of cognitive development.
In Piaget's theory, a symbol refers to a(n)
mental representation.
Compared with intelligence tests for infants and toddlers, tests for preschoolers take on a new dimension as emphasis is placed on assessing
verbal skills.
Our beliefs about who we are, what we are able to do, and the traits we engender are referred to as our
Catherine has spent most of her life watching her aunts and her mother help the elderly at the church. She is observing prosocial behavior, or
altruistic behavior.
Going from simplest to most complex, which of the following sequences of types of play is correct
functional play, constructive play, pretend play, formal games with rules
Which of the following statements regarding biological differences between the brains of males and females is correct
Female brains have greater neuronal density.
Research suggests that compared to those who are unpopular, well-liked preschoolers and kindergartners
all of the above
Five-year-old Lakeem has been doing everything that his dad does. Lakeem's dad has a successful construction business, and Lakeem proudly wears his own company hat and tool belt everywhere his mother lets him. Freud would call Lakeem's dress preferences a sign of
Parents and teachers of preschoolers can avoid fostering the "helpless" pattern associated with low self-esteem by
giving specific strategy-focused feedback rather than criticizing the child as a person.
An internal reward for a child's good behavior is a reward that is
the child's own feeling of pleasure or accomplishment.
Punishing a child tends to be most effective when
punishment is accompanied by a short, simple explanation
Research has found that peers begin to reinforce gender-typed behavior by the age of
The __________ is how one perceives oneself, and the __________ is what one would like to be.
real self; ideal self
Young children rate __________ as more imp
ortant in friendship than do older children.
physical traits
The earliest, most frequent, and most intense disputes among siblings are about
property rights
The __________ theory, associated with Lawrence Kohlberg, holds that a child learns about gender by actively thinking about his or her experiences.
Five-year-old Shawn is playing with his sister Cheryl's doll. She tells him to put it down because "boys don't play with dolls!" This is an example of a gender
Erikson's third developmental crisis describes a conflict between
initiative and guilt.
Madeline took Billy's toy boat away from him and made him cry. Madeline's parents talked to her about how sad Billy was and how badly he felt. Madeline felt sorry about what she had done and gave the boat back to Billy. Which form of discipline was used?
an inductiveness technique
Hailey asks her friend Madeline if she can play with her "Astronaut Barbie." Madeline refuses to turn over the doll, because she is waiting for lift-off of the space shuttle. Hailey grabs the doll and runs from the room. Which type of aggression would this represent?
In the preschool years, a child typically makes logical connections between aspects of the self but still sees these characteristics in all-or-nothing terms. This way of thinking is called
representational mappings.
Research on parenting styles suggests that the most self-reliant, self-controlled, and contented children have parents who use a(n) __________ style.
Antonio and Anton want to play soccer after school, but they need to find more friends who want to play with them. Soccer is considered what kind of play?
a formal game with rules
__________ is the lowest cognitive level of play, involving repetitive muscular movements such as rolling or bouncing a ball.
Functional play
When one speaks of methods of molding children's character and teaching them self- control and acceptable behavior, one is referring to
According to Erikson, the characteristic acquired through successful resolution of the initiative-versus-guilt crisis
Roberto's parents often express their displeasure with his misbehavior by ignoring him when he is acting inappropriately and for a short time afterward. This is called
withdrawal of love.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps in the early childhood development of self-definition?
single representation, representational mappings, representational systems
Abigail has become aware that she is a female and that females are different from males. Abigail has acquired
gender identity.
Research suggests that boys use __________ aggression and girls use __________ aggression.
overt; relational
Boys spend twice as much time participating in team sports as girls do, and the disparity widens as children grow. Overall, 9 - 13 year olds' participation in organized sports is about
At age 6, girls are superior in __________, and boys are superior in __________.
movement accuracy; forceful, less complex acts
Research has demonstrated that obesity is caused by
all of the above
Which of the following seems to be the best explanation a reason for the marked decrease in children's tooth decay during the past twenty years
increased use of sealants on the rough, chewing surfaces
A technique designed to prevent decay on the rough, chewing surfaces of children's teeth involves the use of
adhesive sealants.
__________ is (are) the leading cause of death in middle childhood.
Variations in school-age children's health are the result of
all of the above
Judgments of normal weight and body composition in middle-school-age children should be made cautiously because
different ethnic groups and populations seem to differ in developmental rates.
Christina is beginning to feel like a giant among her classmates and thinks that something is wrong with her. Which of the following best describes children's height gain during middle childhood?
School-age children grow an average of about 1 to 3 inches a year.
Sleep needs decline from about ___ hours a day at age five to a little more than ___ hours a day by age nine.
Which child is most likely to stutter?
a 6-year-old boy
Christopher has been having sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and breathing difficulties for the past seven months. A likely diagnosis for Christopher's condition is
Most parents can probably tell you that rough-and-tumble play reaches its peak during
middle childhood
Sally's primary teeth have been falling out at a rate of about four each year. This process will probably continue until she is about ___ years old.
Research has substantiated which of the following statements about childhood obesity?
Children tend to adopt the eating habits of the people they live with.
Brain development in middle childhood includes
all of the above
The primary teeth begin to fall out at age ___ and are replaced by permanent teeth.
During middle childhood, children need on average about ___ calories a day to maintain growth and activity levels.
Today, the average 10-year-old weighs eleven pounds more than the average 10-year-old did ___ years ago.
Poor children, a disproportionate number who are minorities, are more likely than other children to
all of the above
Although individual growth in middle childhood varies widely, one typical difference between school-age boys and school-age girls is that
girls retain more fatty tissue than boys do
Jason has a cold. His pediatrician tells his mother that the cold will probably last for two days. Given the short-term nature of Jason's illness, we would say that he suffers from a(n) __________ medical condition.
From 1980 to 1995, the incidence of asthma has
Many children do not eat breakfast and get at least ___ of their calories from snacks.
Jonathan and Priscilla are wrestling, hitting, and chasing each other. At the same time, they are laughing and screaming. This sort of behavior is called
rough-and-tumble play.
Children who watch at ___ hours of television a day are 4.6 times as likely to be overweight as those who watch 2 or less hours
Agnes, who is 8 years old, was diagnosed with asthma three years ago. Her condition is referred to as a(n) __________ medical condition.
Which of the following statements about children in middle childhood in nonliterate societies and in industrialized societies is correct?
all of the above
A common medical problem of overweight children is high
all of the above
Compared to white children, African-American and Mexican-American children have __________ blood pressure levels.
Starting with observations about particular members of a class and then drawing general conclusions is called
inductive reasoning.
In evaluating misbehavior, children in Piaget's first stage of moral reasoning are very likely to
see the physical consequences of an offense rather than the intention behind the act.
The mental ability that is essential to creativity is known as
divergent thinking.
The ability to understand the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship between each of them to a third is called
transitive inference.
Recent research on ADHD suggests that
the disorder has a substantial genetic basis.
The __________ is the most widely used intelligence test for school-age children today.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
Lucy is trying to remember all the things that she has to do after school. She develops a little story in her head that includes all of her after-school tasks. Which memory strategy links items together in a story or scene?
Bob is asked to remember to get a loaf of bread at the store, so he repeats over and over, "bread, bread, bread." His memory strategy is an example of the technique called
The most commonly diagnosed learning disability is
Victor has good spatial intelligence. This thrills his father, who has been trying to get him to consider which of the following occupational areas
architecture, carpentry, and city planning
Which of the following characteristics is a definition of giftedness?
all of the above
Carmella knows that a given amount of spaghetti remains the same whether the spaghetti is in long strands or broken into short pieces. She has acquired the ability of
Eight-year-old Lucas is shown a ball of brown clay, which is then rolled out into a large, flat disk. He is asked whether the disk contains the same amount of clay. "It's the same amount," Lucas says, "because I could just make it into a ball again." In Piaget's terminology, Lucas understands the principle of
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 emphasizes
all of the above
Pablo, who speaks Spanish, is in a second-language education class where he interacts with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking students in both English and Spanish. This method of second-language education is best described as
two-way learning.
Roberto says, "All dogs bark. Spot is a dog. Therefore, Spot barks." This is an example of
deductive reasoning.
Kendra keeps saying her poem over and over again. This rehearsal is a strategy for
keeping something in working memory.
Reading that emphasizes decoding of unfamiliar words is also called the __________ approach.
Children who do well in school generally have parents who
become actively involved in their education.
In his cognitive theory of development, Piaget demonstrated that children ages 7 to 11 years are in the __________ stage of development.
concrete operational
__________ is the automatic advancement of children from one grade to another even if they do not meet academic standards for the grade they are leaving.
Social promotion
Piaget divided the development of children's moral reasoning into
three major stages culminating with the concept of equity.
Early teacher identification of children who exhibit social problems may improve children's
academic outcome.
Mrs. Howard has set up different stations in her classroom for the children's lesson on addition. Each station emphasizes a different way of learning such as music, discussion, body movements, floor layouts, and metacognitive exercises. This approach is based on which of the following principles
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
__________ tests do not measure a child's native ability, they __________ intelligence from what children already know
Intelligence: infer
Research suggests that homework is most effective for
high school students.
Longitudinal research suggests that changes in sibling relationships are most likely to occur when one sibling is between the ages of
7 and 9.
A major determinant of self-esteem is a child's view of his or her capacity to
complete productive work.
n middle childhood, peer groups
all of the above
The small minority of children who do not learn to control their physical aggression tend to remain physically aggressive throughout childhood, and also have both social and psychological problems. Studies have shown that their aggression __________ these problems.
It is unclear what role aggression plays in these problems.
Which of the following statements is correct regarding adopted and non-adopted children
Most adjustment problems that adopted children have seem to surface around middle childhood.
Grace, 17, volunteers with her neighborhood after-school program and every year collects money to send to political refugees. She also participates in a tutoring program with her school to help children with learning and behavioral problems. What can be said about Grace's self-esteem?
Her self-esteem is high, because helping those less fortunate helps to build it.
In middle childhood, empathy __________ and prosocial behavior __________.
increases; increases
Children who are victims of bullying tend to have
low self-esteem.
Nine-year-old Stephanie is beginning to internalize the values of her parents and society. Although her parents exercise general supervision over her, when she is not with them she exercises her own form of self-supervision. This phenomenon is called
With regard to the typical composition of peer groups in middle childhood, which of the following statements is correct?
Peer groups are usually all boys or all girls, because children of the same sex have common interests and girls are generally more mature than boys
In middle childhood, __________ have more friends, and _________ have closer friends.
boys; girls
The Johnsons are contemplating getting a divorce. They contacted a counselor to see what they could learn about potential effects on their children. Compared to older children of divorce, younger children
have less realistic perceptions of what caused the divorce.
The virtue that develops with successful resolution of Erikson's fourth crisis is
Unpopular children tend to make friends with
all of the above
Broad, inclusive self-concepts that integrate various aspects of the self are called
representational systems.
As an infant, Louie had what most people would describe as a "difficult" temperament. However, Louie is now 6 years old and his father has established a mutually affectionate, cooperative relationship with him. As their relationship has improved, Louie has also behaved more affectionately and cooperatively with his younger brother, who reciprocates. Which of the following is correct in regards to this situation?
Louie has indirect influence on his brother.
The tendency for some individuals to perceive others as trying to hurt them and to strike out in retaliation or self-defense is
hostile attribution bias.
Children who engage in __________ aggression frequently see other children as trying to hurt them, and they strike out angrily either in retaliation or in self-defense
Resilient children are those who
bounce back" from unfortunate circumstances that would impair most children's development.
Which statement is true about bullying in United States schools.
All of the above
Which of the following statements is correct regarding the poverty and children?
the United States, the population with the highest percentage of children living in poverty in 2008 is the African American population.
Since the early 1960s mothers have been going out into the workforce in large numbers. Some have joined the job market for economic reasons, others for self-fulfillment. Today, over __________ of mothers of school-age children in the United States are in the workforce.
Children experienced which of the following reactions to the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001
all of these
Which of the following factors influences sibling relationships and roles?
all of the above
According to your textbook, a father's degree of involvement with his children tends to be related to his
economic success