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Which of the following is the foundation for socialization?


Baby Elise is irritable, does not follow regular patterns of eating and sleeping, and has intense reactions to what goes on in her environment. These are characteristics of which kind of temperament?


According to Erikson, a child who develops a predominance of basic trust will have the characteristic of


Kendrick has been awake in his crib for a long time. He produces two or three drawn-out cries with no prolonged breath-holding. He is probably


By nine months of age, about ____ percent of U.S. infants are in some form of nonparental child care arrangement


The establishment of basic trust verus basic mistrust in a child's personality occurs between __________ of age.

birth and 18 months

Sohi is 2 years old and insists on dressing herself even if her clothes are put on wrong. According to Erikson, which of the following stages is she in

autonomy versus shame and doubt

The earliest smile, a reflex smile, appears

shortly after birth.

According to Ainsworth, attachment forms primarily as a result of

consistency of responsiveness by the mother.

During what Erikson calls the crisis of basic trust versus basic mistrust, children

determine whether or not the world can be relied on.

Temperament is

one's style of approaching people and situations.

Self-regulation is

the control of a child's own behavior to conform to social expectations.

The longest-lasting relationship a person will likely have is with their


The cognitive understanding by infants that they are functioning beings, separate from the rest of their world, is referred to as


Which of the following children is probably NOT experiencing a problem of "fit" between temperament and environment?

Aaron is a quiet and fairly inactive child. He lives in a small apartment with his older parents

Emotions such as empathy and pride

are related to the development of self-awareness

Constructive conflict between siblings

can be an opportunity for growth.

In the "Strange Situation" test, Tony rarely cries when his mother leaves and is not eager to greet her when she returns. He appears to be


Sometimes laughter helps babies discharge tension, such as


Leah cries every time her mother leaves the house. It is so disturbing that her mother is thinking of giving up her part-time job. Leah's distress when a familiar caregiver leaves is called

separation anxiety.

Which of the following is a good way to measure attachment between a mother and a baby?

the reaction of the baby when the mother returns

The best way to respond to an infant who is crying is to

respond regularly with tender, soothing care

Our image of ourselves is called our


Dr. Lakivani is doing research on childhood attachment using Ainsworth's "Strange Situation," whereby a baby is observed in a room with

the mother and a stranger in different combinations.

According to Erikson, shame and doubt

need to be balanced with autonomy.

Emotions are __________ reactions to experiences that are associated with physiological and behavioral changes.


Lucy is a quiet infant who is mild in her responses, both positive and negative. She shows a distinct dislike for new situations, but eventually adjusts and enjoys new things. Thomas and Chess would classify Lucy as a(n) __________ child.


A very securely attached child generally grows up to be


A government program providing medical assistance to low income families is called


In the United States, the leading cause of death among children today is


Pedro has gotten proficient in kicking the soccer ball into the goal net. This ability relies on his __________ motor skills.


Shirley has a child who sleepwalks and has night terrors. Given the recommendations provided in your textbook, Shirley should do all of the following except

wake the child during sleepwalking and night terrors

Enuresis is the medical term for


Children can get lead in their bloodstreams from lead-contaminated food and water, and from inhaling dust from lead-based paints in schools and homes. To reduce the effects of lead exposure parents can

all of the above

Which of the following statements regarding homelessness and children is correct?

all of the above

Children are required by law to ride in specially designed car seats or seatbelt restraints in

all states including the District of Columbia

Which of the following statements regarding early childhood sleep behaviors is false

Walking and talking during sleep is unusual in early childhood.

Compared to children in the United States, children in other cultures get __________ sleep, and the timing of sleep is __________.

about the same amount of; often different

By what age are all the primary, or deciduous, teeth in place?


Environmental contaminants may play a role in certain childhood issues such as

all of the above

Which of the following statements about children's exposure to smoking is correct

all of the above

A clear preference for handedness is usually evident by ___ months of age.


Jean-Paul has a young son and wants to make certain that he is as safe as possible in their automobile. Which of the following concerns should he pay attention to?

all of the above

As preschoolers develop gross and fine motor skills, they continually merge abilities they already have with those that they are acquiring in order to produce more complex abilities. Such combinations of skills are known as

systems of action.

Jack has occasionally been quite upset when he awakens in the morning. He tells his parents that he dreamed he was being chased by the large dog that lives down the street. Jack is experiencing


Which of the following is NOT recommended when trying to encourage healthy eating habits in early childhood?

Insist that the child clean his or her plate.

Poor children are at a higher-than-average risk for which of the following health problems

all of the above

Four-year-old Sam loves high fat foods. Although Sam is not overweight, his parents want him to have a healthy diet. Which of the following statements about dietary fat and preschoolers is correct?

Children over age 2 should obtain about 30% of their total calories from fat.

Which statement about handedness is correct?

There appears to be a single gene for right-handedness.

Most deaths from injuries, especially among preschool aged children, in the United States

occur at home.

Adam is getting pretty good with the joystick that guides his favorite computer game. This activity relies on his __________ motor skills.


During early childhood, youngsters grow ___ inches per year

2 to 3

Bonnie has apparently awakened from a deep sleep. She is staring ahead and breathing quickly. When asked if she has had a bad dream, she does not answer but promptly lies back down and falls asleep. The next morning, she has no recollection of the experience. Bonnie experienced

a sleep terror.

Compared with infants, children in the early childhood stage

require fewer calories per pound of body fat.

Excessive weight gain during the early childhood period is a result of

all of the above

Although the United States is one of the richest countries in the world, in 2002, nearly ___% of children in the United States lived in poverty


Jane's "baby teddy" is kept in her mother's car to help calm her down when she has to go to daycare. "Baby teddy" is her __________ object.


Which of the following is NOT a test used to measure the intelligence of children?

Gardner-Denver Test of Multiple Intelligences

Sarah was mean to her brother, Adam. When Adam got sick, Sarah concluded that she made her brother sick. This is an example of

transductive reasoning.

Ena is an average 3-year-old. By this age we would expect her to be able to use about __________ different words.

900 to 1,000

To understand what is on the printed page, children first need to master certain prereading skills. The development of these skills is called

emergent literacy.

__________ is the ability to understand that others have mental states, and the ability to judge others' feelings and intentions.

Social cognition

Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development describes scaffolding as

all of the above

According to Piaget, children first understand the distinction between appearance (what seems to be) and reality (what is) at about the age of __________ years.

5 to 6

Speech intended to be understood by a listener is called __________ speech


Renee pours a glass of milk for her doll telling her mother that her doll is very thirsty. The attribution of life to a nonliving object is called


Sheena knows what her mother will think when she comes into the room and sees the mess that she and her friends have made. Sheena's awareness of her mental processes and those of other people is called

theory of mind.

__________ is the ability to identify something encountered previously, and __________ is the ability to reproduce knowledge from memory.

Recognition; recall

__________ is memory that produces a script of familiar routines to guide behavior.

Generic memory

Danielle is 7 years old and is beginning to develop memories that will form her personal life history. These memories are specific and long lasting. They are __________ memories


Timothy does not understand that transforming the shape of a liquid (by pouring it from one container into another) does not change the amount of liquid. This represents which limitation in preoperational thought?


Emma, age 3, runs into the room to show her parents a picture she has drawn. While holding the paper with the drawing facing her, she says, "See my picture?" Her parents, able to see only the back of the paper, ask to see the drawing. Emma just holds the paper closer to them without turning it around. Emma's behavior demonstrates


Piaget's terminology, a mental representation to which a person has attached meaning is called a(n)


refers to the practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes.


A child's ability to understand what a new word means, despite hearing it only once or twice, is called

fast mapping.

At preschool, Ms. Thomas often feels as though she has spent the morning with twice the number of students that she actually has. It seems that everyone has invited their imaginary friend to spend the morning. Which of the following statements regarding imaginary companions is false?

Boys are more likely than girls to have imaginary companions.

Preoperational children tend to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others, leading to illogical conclusions. Piaget called this tendency


Young children are unable to see things from another's point of view. Piaget describes this as


When information is needed, David searches his mind looking for the answer and then writes it down. David's search is referred to as


The idea that children construct autobiographical memories through conversations with adults about shared events is called the __________ model

social interaction

Information being encoded or retrieved is kept in a short-term "storehouse" which is referred to as

working memory.

Because of its lack of reliability, __________ memory has become an important issue in lawsuits involving charges of child abuse.


When children talk aloud to themselves with no intent of communicating with anyone else, their speech is referred to as


Between the ages of 2 and 7, children enter Piaget's __________ stage of cognitive development.


In Piaget's theory, a symbol refers to a(n)

mental representation.

Compared with intelligence tests for infants and toddlers, tests for preschoolers take on a new dimension as emphasis is placed on assessing

verbal skills.

Our beliefs about who we are, what we are able to do, and the traits we engender are referred to as our


Catherine has spent most of her life watching her aunts and her mother help the elderly at the church. She is observing prosocial behavior, or

altruistic behavior.

Going from simplest to most complex, which of the following sequences of types of play is correct

functional play, constructive play, pretend play, formal games with rules

Which of the following statements regarding biological differences between the brains of males and females is correct

Female brains have greater neuronal density.

Research suggests that compared to those who are unpopular, well-liked preschoolers and kindergartners

all of the above

Five-year-old Lakeem has been doing everything that his dad does. Lakeem's dad has a successful construction business, and Lakeem proudly wears his own company hat and tool belt everywhere his mother lets him. Freud would call Lakeem's dress preferences a sign of


Parents and teachers of preschoolers can avoid fostering the "helpless" pattern associated with low self-esteem by

giving specific strategy-focused feedback rather than criticizing the child as a person.

An internal reward for a child's good behavior is a reward that is

the child's own feeling of pleasure or accomplishment.

Punishing a child tends to be most effective when

punishment is accompanied by a short, simple explanation

Research has found that peers begin to reinforce gender-typed behavior by the age of


The __________ is how one perceives oneself, and the __________ is what one would like to be.

real self; ideal self

Young children rate __________ as more imp
ortant in friendship than do older children.

physical traits

The earliest, most frequent, and most intense disputes among siblings are about

property rights

The __________ theory, associated with Lawrence Kohlberg, holds that a child learns about gender by actively thinking about his or her experiences.


Five-year-old Shawn is playing with his sister Cheryl's doll. She tells him to put it down because "boys don't play with dolls!" This is an example of a gender


Erikson's third developmental crisis describes a conflict between

initiative and guilt.

Madeline took Billy's toy boat away from him and made him cry. Madeline's parents talked to her about how sad Billy was and how badly he felt. Madeline felt sorry about what she had done and gave the boat back to Billy. Which form of discipline was used?

an inductiveness technique

Hailey asks her friend Madeline if she can play with her "Astronaut Barbie." Madeline refuses to turn over the doll, because she is waiting for lift-off of the space shuttle. Hailey grabs the doll and runs from the room. Which type of aggression would this represent?


In the preschool years, a child typically makes logical connections between aspects of the self but still sees these characteristics in all-or-nothing terms. This way of thinking is called

representational mappings.

Research on parenting styles suggests that the most self-reliant, self-controlled, and contented children have parents who use a(n) __________ style.


Antonio and Anton want to play soccer after school, but they need to find more friends who want to play with them. Soccer is considered what kind of play?

a formal game with rules

__________ is the lowest cognitive level of play, involving repetitive muscular movements such as rolling or bouncing a ball.

Functional play

When one speaks of methods of molding children's character and teaching them self- control and acceptable behavior, one is referring to


According to Erikson, the characteristic acquired through successful resolution of the initiative-versus-guilt crisis


Roberto's parents often express their displeasure with his misbehavior by ignoring him when he is acting inappropriately and for a short time afterward. This is called

withdrawal of love.

Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps in the early childhood development of self-definition?

single representation, representational mappings, representational systems

Abigail has become aware that she is a female and that females are different from males. Abigail has acquired

gender identity.

Research suggests that boys use __________ aggression and girls use __________ aggression.

overt; relational

Boys spend twice as much time participating in team sports as girls do, and the disparity widens as children grow. Overall, 9 - 13 year olds' participation in organized sports is about


At age 6, girls are superior in __________, and boys are superior in __________.

movement accuracy; forceful, less complex acts

Research has demonstrated that obesity is caused by

all of the above

Which of the following seems to be the best explanation a reason for the marked decrease in children's tooth decay during the past twenty years

increased use of sealants on the rough, chewing surfaces

A technique designed to prevent decay on the rough, chewing surfaces of children's teeth involves the use of

adhesive sealants.

__________ is (are) the leading cause of death in middle childhood.


Variations in school-age children's health are the result of

all of the above

Judgments of normal weight and body composition in middle-school-age children should be made cautiously because

different ethnic groups and populations seem to differ in developmental rates.

Christina is beginning to feel like a giant among her classmates and thinks that something is wrong with her. Which of the following best describes children's height gain during middle childhood?

School-age children grow an average of about 1 to 3 inches a year.

Sleep needs decline from about ___ hours a day at age five to a little more than ___ hours a day by age nine.


Which child is most likely to stutter?

a 6-year-old boy

Christopher has been having sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and breathing difficulties for the past seven months. A likely diagnosis for Christopher's condition is


Most parents can probably tell you that rough-and-tumble play reaches its peak during

middle childhood

Sally's primary teeth have been falling out at a rate of about four each year. This process will probably continue until she is about ___ years old.


Research has substantiated which of the following statements about childhood obesity?

Children tend to adopt the eating habits of the people they live with.

Brain development in middle childhood includes

all of the above

The primary teeth begin to fall out at age ___ and are replaced by permanent teeth.


During middle childhood, children need on average about ___ calories a day to maintain growth and activity levels.


Today, the average 10-year-old weighs eleven pounds more than the average 10-year-old did ___ years ago.


Poor children, a disproportionate number who are minorities, are more likely than other children to

all of the above

Although individual growth in middle childhood varies widely, one typical difference between school-age boys and school-age girls is that

girls retain more fatty tissue than boys do

Jason has a cold. His pediatrician tells his mother that the cold will probably last for two days. Given the short-term nature of Jason's illness, we would say that he suffers from a(n) __________ medical condition.


From 1980 to 1995, the incidence of asthma has


Many children do not eat breakfast and get at least ___ of their calories from snacks.


Jonathan and Priscilla are wrestling, hitting, and chasing each other. At the same time, they are laughing and screaming. This sort of behavior is called

rough-and-tumble play.

Children who watch at ___ hours of television a day are 4.6 times as likely to be overweight as those who watch 2 or less hours


Agnes, who is 8 years old, was diagnosed with asthma three years ago. Her condition is referred to as a(n) __________ medical condition.


Which of the following statements about children in middle childhood in nonliterate societies and in industrialized societies is correct?

all of the above

A common medical problem of overweight children is high

all of the above

Compared to white children, African-American and Mexican-American children have __________ blood pressure levels.


Starting with observations about particular members of a class and then drawing general conclusions is called

inductive reasoning.

In evaluating misbehavior, children in Piaget's first stage of moral reasoning are very likely to

see the physical consequences of an offense rather than the intention behind the act.

The mental ability that is essential to creativity is known as

divergent thinking.

The ability to understand the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship between each of them to a third is called

transitive inference.

Recent research on ADHD suggests that

the disorder has a substantial genetic basis.

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