any chemical substances used in medical practice to treat disease (a.k.a drugs)
chemical substance produced by microorganisms; have capacity to inhibit growth of bacteria; used in dilute solutions or it can be toxic
molded bread on open wounds, plants for external treatment, Karaway seed used in India to treat cancer
first to use chemical to treat the whole body from disease; coined the term chemotherapy; treated syphilis
discovered penicillin; noticed that mold from a "spoiled" experiment inhibited the growth of germs; he made a broth that could be effective on wounds
spectrum of activity
the range of microbes that the antibiotic can fight against; an antimicrobial agent refers to the variety of microorganisms sensitive to the agent.
those that are effective against only a small number of microorganisms or a single taxonomic group (agents attack only a few different organisms)
agents that effective against a great number of microorganisms from a wide range of taxonomic groups, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; tetracylcines (agents attack many different organims)
5 Drug Mechanisms of Action
-Inhibition of Cell Wall Synthesis
-Disruption of Cell Membrane Function
-Inhibition of Protein Synthesis
-Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
-Action of Antimetabolites
inhibition of cell wall synthesis
allow the membrane of the affected microbe to rupture and release the cell contents.
-does not hurt animal cells because they lack a cell wall; best for gram +; i.e. penicillin
disruption of cell membrane function
dissolve the membrane or interfere with the movement of substances into or out of cells.
-act as detergents that distort the lipid cell membrane; best for gram -; i.e. polymixins
inhibition of protein synthesis
prevent growth of microbes by disrupting ribosomes or otherwise interfering with the process of translation.
-inhibits protein synthesis so they cannot produce proteins; i.e. streptomycin
inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
interfere with synthesis of RNA (transcription) or DNA (replication) or disrupt the information these molecules contain.
-binds to RNA polymerase to stop RNA synthesis by stopping nucleic acid formation
substances that affect the utilization of metabolites and therefore prevent a cell from carrying out necessary metabolic reactions.
-affect normal metabolites by competitively inhibiting microbial enzymes
-or by being erroneously incorporated into important molecules such as nuclei acids
Kinds of Side Effects
side effects antimicrobial agents on the host include toxicity, allergy, and disruption of normal microflora.
-allergic reactions to antimicrobial agents occur when the body reacts to the agent as a foreign substance.
-many antimicrobial agents attack not only the infectious organism but also normal microflora.
-superinfections with new pathogens can occur when the defensive capacity of normal microbiota is destroyed.
disruption of Microflora
kills the good bacteria in the body making it more susceptible to infection
acquire via genetic change or non-genetic mechanisms or evasion if bacteria live in areas where ab can't reach
one organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed; microbial competition
pathogens or other factors disturb the state of health such that the body cannot perform its normal functions
the ability of the organism to cause disease; certain strains/species can be higher in this ability;bigger picture then virulence
not usually found on our internal organs or deep tissue or blood, or brain, or urine
resident or transient microflora that can cause disease under certain conditions or certain locations of the body
inherited, degenital (born with it), immunological, mental, nutritional deficient
can't be spread form host to host and may be acquired in soil, water, or contaminated foods
part of the cell wall of Gram - bacteria and are released when cells divide or are killed; highly inflammatory
produced by and released from bacteria; proteins secreted by Gram + (mostly); powerful; i.e. hemolysins
a disease characterized by periods of inactivity either before symptoms appear or between attacks
the continued production of the infectious parasite within the host over many months or years
abnormal condition that is a side effect of a disease; pox mark-chicken pox, paralysis-polio
a disease that develops more slowly, is usually less severe, and persists for a long indeterminate period
an infection confined to a specific area from which pathogens can spread to other areas
an infection in which bacteria are transported in the blood but do not multiply in transit; spreading of bacteria infection
an infection in which viruses are transported in the blood but do not multiply in transit; spreading of virus infection
a secondary infection from the removal of normal microbiota, allowing colonization by pathogenic, and often antibiotic resistant, microbes
an infection that fails to produce symptoms, either because too few organisms are present or because host defenses effectively combat the pathogens
the time between infection and the appearance of signs and symptoms of a disease; most severe signs and symptoms
the stage during which pathogens begin to invade tissues; it is marked by early nonspecific symptoms
the period during which the individual experiences the typical signs and symptoms of the disease
the stage during which host defenses overcome pathogens; signs and symptoms subside during this phase, and secondary infections may occur
the stage during which tissue damage is repaired and the patient regains strength; recovering individuals may still transmit pathogens to others
deviation or interruption of the normal structure of a living organism, accompanied by a set of signs; infectious and non; parasite and disease NOT interchangeable
move from one infected individual to another (possibly via a vector or direct contact: skin, ingest, transfusion, transplant)
looking and focusing on finding the cause-effect relationship on the occurrence of diseases in a population
reservoirs of infection
sites where organisms can persist and maintain there ability to infect; could be animal or human
immunity enjoyed by a large portion of a population that reduces disease transmission among non-immune individuals
commonly spread diseases in the hospital; most easily spread are staphylococcus aureus and e. coli