31 terms

AP Psychology Review - Approaches and History

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behavior
a natural process subject to natural laws, refers to the observable actions of a person or an animal
mind
refers to sensations, memorie, motives, emotions, thoughts and other subjective phenomena particular to an individual that are not readily observed
dualism
divides the world into two parts: body and spirit
René Descartes
conducted some of the most important speculation on the nature of man; believed that the physical world is not under divine influence but rather follows a set of observable laws or rules; the creatures of the world are like machines in that they behave in regular, predictable ways; hypothesized that the mind and body interact and that the mind controls the body while the body provides the mind with sensory input for it to decipher; believed this interaction occurs in the pineal gland, which is located at the top of the brain stem; some body movements are not controlled by the mind (reflexes)
John Locke
extended Descartes's application of natural laws to all things, believing that even the mind is under the control of such laws; his school of thought is known as empiricism; he proposes that human beings are born knowing nothing; he uses the term tabula rasa (blank slate) to describe the mind of a child; All knowledge must be learned; nothing is innate; emphasized nurture over nature as the greater influence on development
empiricism
the acquisition of truth through observation and experiences;
Thomas Hobbes
believed that the idea of a soul, spirit, or mind is meaningless; his theory is known as materialism which is the belief that the only things that exist are matter and energy
behaviorism
an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior
Charles Darwin
published Origin of a Species in 1859 which proposed the idea of natural selection
natural selection
said that all creatures have evolved into their present state over long periods of time
evolutionary theory
established behavior as important and observable, and therefore, subject scrutiny
Wilhelm Wundt
credited with the creation of the science of psychology; in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany, he opened a laboratory to study consciousness; he was trained in Physiology and hoped to apply the methods that he used to study the body to study the mind
Edward Titchener
a student in Wilhelm Wundt's laboratory and was one of the first to bring the study of psychology to the US; he sought to identify the smallest possible elements of the mind, theorizing that understanding all of the parts would lead to the understanding of the greater structure of the mind. This theory is known as structuralism
William James
American psychologist who opposed the structuralist approach. Instead, he argued that what is important is the function of the mind; heavily influenced by Darwin, he believed that the important thing to understand is how the mind fulfills its purpose; this theory is known as functionalism
functionalism
the important thing to understand is how the mind fulfills its purpose and what is important to its function
biological psychology
a field of psychology that seeks to understand the interactions between anatomy and physiology and behavior; practiced by directly applying biological experimentation to psychological problems;
behavioral genetics
a field of psychology that emphasizes that particular behaviors are attributed to particular, genetically-based psychological characteristics; biological predispositions and the effect of the environment;
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
BF Skinner
pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.
behavior modification
a set of techniques in which psychological problems are considered to be the product of learned habits, which can be unlearned by the application of behavioral methods
cognitive psychology
perspective that focuses on the mental processes involved in perception, learning, memory, and thinking
humanistic approach
an approach to psychology emphasizing a person's positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose any destiny
Abraham Maslow
humanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization, transcendence
self-actualization
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Carl Rogers
stressed the roll of unconditional positive regard in interactions and the need for positive self-concept as critical factors in attaining self-actualization
Sigmund Freud
developed the psychoanalytic theory
psychoanalytic theory
A theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
conscious mind
level of the mind that is aware of immediate surroundings and perceptions.
unconscious mind
The part of the mind that Freud believed housed all the memories, urges, and conflicts that are truly beyond awareness
sociocultural psychology
study of influence of cultural and ethnic similarities and differences on behavior and social functioning
evolutionary psychology
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection