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Henry VII

founder of the Tudor dynasty in England. He was a conservative and strengthened the crown by: 1) built up funds w/o overtaxing 2) weakening noble power and strengthening royal power

common law


Court of Star Chamber


War of the Roses

a civil war that weakened the power of nobles; the Tudors came out victorious


a uniform worn by servants of a household

Parlement of Paris

regional judicial and legislative bodies in France

Louis (XI) the Spider

helped reestablish the king's power, setting a basis for absolutism


a direct land tax on the French peasantry and non-nobles

Estates General

a representative assembly of the commoners that was supposed to limit the king's power, but it lost its influence

Ferdinand and Isabella

1469 marriage of the two led to the joining of Aragon and Castille; started the Spanish Inquisition


peacekeeping association of armed individuals

Spanish Inquisition

courts that demanded religious uniformity- expelled Jews and Muslims from Spain

Expansion by marriage (Hapsburgs)

expanded their power and territory by marrying other royal families

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