founder of the Tudor dynasty in England. He was a conservative and strengthened the crown by: 1) built up funds w/o overtaxing 2) weakening noble power and strengthening royal power
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Court of Star Chamber
War of the Roses
a civil war that weakened the power of nobles; the Tudors came out victorious
a uniform worn by servants of a household
Parlement of Paris
regional judicial and legislative bodies in France
Louis (XI) the Spider
helped reestablish the king's power, setting a basis for absolutism
a direct land tax on the French peasantry and non-nobles
a representative assembly of the commoners that was supposed to limit the king's power, but it lost its influence
Ferdinand and Isabella
1469 marriage of the two led to the joining of Aragon and Castille; started the Spanish Inquisition
peacekeeping association of armed individuals
courts that demanded religious uniformity- expelled Jews and Muslims from Spain
Expansion by marriage (Hapsburgs)
expanded their power and territory by marrying other royal families
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