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18 terms

Forensic Science

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forensic
comes from the Latin word forensis which means before the forum
forensic science
the use of science pertaining to matters of the court
CSI
Crime Scene Investigation
Alec Jeffreys
He developed a DNA profiling technique called VTNR
Colin Pitchfork
VTNR DNA analysis to convict him of rape and murder and it was the first case using this type of DNA analysis.
Michael Blassie
placed in the tomb of the Unknown and later bones were examined and DNA was taken and then it was proven to be him. mtDNA was used and it was the first time it had been used to prove an identify of an unknown body.
Kirk Bloodsworth
semen test revealed and the semen didn't belong to him. 2003 DNA was linked to real killer and since it was very small sample STR/PCR were used. it was the first time DNA evidence was exonerated a person on death row.
DNA profile (fingerprint)
used in Criminal court and scientists can use it to show the variation in people's DNA
chain of custody
a record of all individuals and locations that the physical evidence has come in contact with from the time it was obtained until it is presented in court.
VTNR
Variable Number Tandem Repeats--these are regions of DNA that are next to each other where the base sequence is repeated over and over again. The number of repeated sections present in a sample is different in every person
RFLP
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-- Alec Jeffreys used this technique. It uses the restriction enzymes to cut regions of DNA that are surrounding the VTNR. Because DNA regions are different between people, the fragments are different lengths. this technique requires that the sample size be about a quarter.
STR
Short Tandem Repeats---used for forensic analysis inside of a VTNR and are much smaller then VTNR
PCR
Polymerase chain reaction is how it amplified. and it makes use of the same DNA replication as your cells. it can make millions of copies of DNA sequence in just a few hours from only a few cells. sample sizes can be much smaller
mtDNA
used to examine DNA samples that cannot be analyzed by RFLP or STR/PCR
AFIS
Automated Fingerprint Identification System (1977) by FBI
CODIS
computer system that contains two indexes to generate crime leads
forensic index database
DNA profiles of individuals convicted of a felony crimes
arrestee database
DNA profiles developed from crime scene evidence that are not connoted to a particular person