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explicit memory

is conscious and intentional

semantic memory

memory of facts and is a type of explicit memory
(e.g. 2+2=4)

episodic memory

memory of events and is a type of explicit memory
(e.g. what you did this weekend)

implicit memory

is unconscious and nonintentional

emotional memory

is similar to implicit memory and is affective
e.g. feeling of a particular experience

bilateral medial temporal lobe resection lead to realization....

seperation of implicit and explicit memory


partial or total loss of memory

infantile amnesia

inability to remember events from early infancy or early childhood

transient global amnesia

loss of old memories and an inability to form new memories. onset is sudden and often a short course

fugue state

transient disturbance of consciousness in which a person performs purposeful acts but has no conscious recollection of those actions

electroconvulsive therapy

used to treat depresson, produces transient memory loss

anterorgrade amnesia

unable to acquire new memories

retrograde amnesia

a lose of memories that must have been accessible prior

time-dependent retrograde amnesia

amnesia for which the severity of the injury determines how far back in time the amnesia extends. amnesia gets worse- memory expanding for long periods of time to eventually lasting a few seconds to a minute

consolidation theory

states that the role of the hippocampus is to consolidate memories, a process to make them permanent

autonoetic awareness

self-knowledge over time

patients with semantic dementia have...

problems with semantic memory (e.g. picture or object naming) without loss of episodic memory

what is semantic dementia associated with

degeneration to anterior temporal lobes or to lesion/ resection of uncinate fasciculus

uncinate fasiculus

fiber pathway that connects to anterior temporal cortex with the inferior and orbital frontal cortex

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

symptoms of nystagmus, ataxia, confabulation and amnesia
damage to- the medial and anterior thalamic nuclei, mammilary bodies, midbrain nuclei and cerebellar vermis

post mortem brain of Alzheimer's Disease

1. extracellular AB plaques
2. intracellular neurofibrillary tangles
3. inflammation (marker of tissue damage)

why do amyloid plaques accumulate in brain?

1. increased production of amyloid B peptides
2. impaired elimiation of peptides

what induces apoptosis

accumulation of plaques

what is taupathy associated with

other neurodegenerative disorders

tangles and plaques target....

hippocampal formation

where does Alzheimer's affect the brain

entorhinal cortex of hippocampal formation

reconsolidation theory

proposes that memories rarely consist of a single trace or neural substrate

reconsolidated memory

memory that reenters a labile phase when recalled and is then restored as a new memory

multiple-trace theory

postulates both multiple kinds of amnesia and changes in memory with the passage of time


experimental technique by which a stimulus is used to sensitize the nervous system to a later presentation of the same or a similar stimulus

depth-of-processing effect

improvement in subsequent recall of an object about which a person has given thought to its meaning or shape

study-test modality shift

process by which subjects, when presented with information in one modality and tested in another modality, display poorer performance than when they are instructed and tested in the same modality

autonoetic awareness

awareness one's self or self-knowledge

Ammon's horn

part of the hippocampus

dentate gyrus

a region of the hippocampal formation

granule cells

neurons that are round in appearance

perforant pathway

large anatomical pathway connecting the entorhinal cortex and subiculum with the hippocampal formation


anatomical pathway running from the septal region to the hippocampus


the recitation of imaginary experiences to fill gaps in memory

Huntington's chorea

hereditary disease characterized by chorea (jerky, involuntary movements) and progressive dementia, ending in death
degeneration of the basal ganglia

classical conditioning

cerebellum plays an important role

fear conditioning

form of learning in which a noxious stimulus is used to elicit fear, an emotional response

short-term memory

a.k.a working memory; form of memory postulated by Donald Broadbent in which information is assumed to be stored for no more than about 15 minutes

Asperger's syndrome

disorder in which a person has relatively good verbal communication but unusual difficulty with social communication. sometimes called high-functioning autism


ability to perceive a stimulus of one sense as a sensation of a different sense, as when sound produces sensation of color

Parkinson's impairs....

implicit memory

prefrontal cortex receives projections from.....

dorsomedial thalamic nucleus

orbitofrontal cortex receives input from...

all sensory modalities

what did stroop task suggest

involvement of anterior cingulate and possible inferior frontal gyrus

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