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49 terms

Memory and Executive Functions

explicit memory
is conscious and intentional
semantic memory
memory of facts and is a type of explicit memory
(e.g. 2+2=4)
episodic memory
memory of events and is a type of explicit memory
(e.g. what you did this weekend)
implicit memory
is unconscious and nonintentional
emotional memory
is similar to implicit memory and is affective
e.g. feeling of a particular experience
bilateral medial temporal lobe resection lead to realization....
seperation of implicit and explicit memory
partial or total loss of memory
infantile amnesia
inability to remember events from early infancy or early childhood
transient global amnesia
loss of old memories and an inability to form new memories. onset is sudden and often a short course
fugue state
transient disturbance of consciousness in which a person performs purposeful acts but has no conscious recollection of those actions
electroconvulsive therapy
used to treat depresson, produces transient memory loss
anterorgrade amnesia
unable to acquire new memories
retrograde amnesia
a lose of memories that must have been accessible prior
time-dependent retrograde amnesia
amnesia for which the severity of the injury determines how far back in time the amnesia extends. amnesia gets worse- memory expanding for long periods of time to eventually lasting a few seconds to a minute
consolidation theory
states that the role of the hippocampus is to consolidate memories, a process to make them permanent
autonoetic awareness
self-knowledge over time
patients with semantic dementia have...
problems with semantic memory (e.g. picture or object naming) without loss of episodic memory
what is semantic dementia associated with
degeneration to anterior temporal lobes or to lesion/ resection of uncinate fasciculus
uncinate fasiculus
fiber pathway that connects to anterior temporal cortex with the inferior and orbital frontal cortex
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
symptoms of nystagmus, ataxia, confabulation and amnesia
damage to- the medial and anterior thalamic nuclei, mammilary bodies, midbrain nuclei and cerebellar vermis
post mortem brain of Alzheimer's Disease
1. extracellular AB plaques
2. intracellular neurofibrillary tangles
3. inflammation (marker of tissue damage)
why do amyloid plaques accumulate in brain?
1. increased production of amyloid B peptides
2. impaired elimiation of peptides
what induces apoptosis
accumulation of plaques
what is taupathy associated with
other neurodegenerative disorders
tangles and plaques target....
hippocampal formation
where does Alzheimer's affect the brain
entorhinal cortex of hippocampal formation
reconsolidation theory
proposes that memories rarely consist of a single trace or neural substrate
reconsolidated memory
memory that reenters a labile phase when recalled and is then restored as a new memory
multiple-trace theory
postulates both multiple kinds of amnesia and changes in memory with the passage of time
experimental technique by which a stimulus is used to sensitize the nervous system to a later presentation of the same or a similar stimulus
depth-of-processing effect
improvement in subsequent recall of an object about which a person has given thought to its meaning or shape
study-test modality shift
process by which subjects, when presented with information in one modality and tested in another modality, display poorer performance than when they are instructed and tested in the same modality
autonoetic awareness
awareness one's self or self-knowledge
Ammon's horn
part of the hippocampus
dentate gyrus
a region of the hippocampal formation
granule cells
neurons that are round in appearance
perforant pathway
large anatomical pathway connecting the entorhinal cortex and subiculum with the hippocampal formation
anatomical pathway running from the septal region to the hippocampus
the recitation of imaginary experiences to fill gaps in memory
Huntington's chorea
hereditary disease characterized by chorea (jerky, involuntary movements) and progressive dementia, ending in death
degeneration of the basal ganglia
classical conditioning
cerebellum plays an important role
fear conditioning
form of learning in which a noxious stimulus is used to elicit fear, an emotional response
short-term memory
a.k.a working memory; form of memory postulated by Donald Broadbent in which information is assumed to be stored for no more than about 15 minutes
Asperger's syndrome
disorder in which a person has relatively good verbal communication but unusual difficulty with social communication. sometimes called high-functioning autism
ability to perceive a stimulus of one sense as a sensation of a different sense, as when sound produces sensation of color
Parkinson's impairs....
implicit memory
prefrontal cortex receives projections from.....
dorsomedial thalamic nucleus
orbitofrontal cortex receives input from...
all sensory modalities
what did stroop task suggest
involvement of anterior cingulate and possible inferior frontal gyrus