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Terms in this set (35)
When fear, not based on evidence or reason, is being used as the primary motivator to get others to accept an idea, proposition, or conclusion.
Scare Tactic Example
Scare Tactics. If you don't support that party's tax plan, you and your family will be reduced to poverty.
When only two choices are presented yet more exist, or a spectrum of possible choices exists between two extremes. False dilemmas are usually characterized by "either this or that" language, but can also be characterized by omissions of choices. Another variety is the false trilemma, which is when three choices are presented when more exist.
You are either with God, or against him.
An argument that casts todays tiny misstep as tomorrow's slide into disaster.
Slippery Slope Example
If you get a B in high school, you won't get into the college of your choice, and therefore will never have a meaningful career.
Arguments that use tender emotions excessively to distract readers from facts
Sentimental Appeals Example
Power lines cause cancer. I met a little boy with cancer who lived just 20 miles from a power line who looked into my eyes and said, in his weak voice, "Please do whatever you can so that other kids won't have to go through what I am going through." I urge you to vote for this bill to tear down all power lines and replace them with monkeys on treadmills.
Arguments that urge people to follow the same path everyone else is taking
Bandwagon Appeal Example
Paris Hilton carries a small dog in her purse, so you should buy a hairless Chihuahua and put it in your Louis Vuitto
Appeals to False Authority
Using an authority as evidence in your argument when the authority is not really an authority on the facts relevant to the argument. As the audience, allowing an irrelevant authority to add credibility to the claim being made.
Appeals to False Authority Example
My high school teacher said it, so it must be true.
A flashpoint of character because the tactic udermines the trust must exist between those who make arguments and those to whom they make them.
Dogmatism. I'm sorry, but I think penguins are sea creatures and that's that.
Suggesting that serious wrong-doings dont differ in kind from minor offenses
Moral Equivalence Example
"Somebody who participates in assisted suicide is as bad Hitler."
Ad Hominem Arguments
"to the man", arguments are attacks directed at the character of a person rather than at the claims he or she makes
Ad Hominem Example
I refuse to study what Thomas Jefferson wrote. He was a racist and a slaveholder. Therefore he has nothing of value to say.
An inference drawn from insufficient evidence
Hasty Generalization Example
"My Honda broke down, all Hondas must be junk"
"post hoc, ergo propter hoc-after this, therefore because of this" , the fallacious assumption that because one event or action follows another, the first necesarily causes the second
Faulty Causality Example
"Did Drinking too much coors cause a writer's literary paralysis? A court said no.
Begging The Question
Any form of argument where the conclusion is assumed in one of the premises. Many people use the phrase "begging the question" incorrectly when they use it to mean, "prompts one to ask the question"
Begging The Question Example
"You cant give me a C in this course because I am an A student"
An argument that gives a lie an honest appearence; its a half truth
Macbeth story, I did not have sexual relations with that woman.
An argument in which claims, reasons or warrants fail to concept logically; one point doesn't follow from another
Non Sequitur Example
You dont love me or you would buy me that bicycle
The Straw Man
An argument that isn't really there, one that's much weaker or more extreme than the one the oppenent is actually making
The Straw Man Example
intelligent advocates claim that life was created by some white-haired figure in they sky, while those arguing against evolution sometimes say that evolutionists claim that evolution is all random chance, so the human eye just came into existence randomly
When an analogy is used to prove or disprove an argument, but the analogy is too dissimilar to be effective, that is, it is unlike the argument more than it is like the argument.
Faulty Analogy Example
Letting prisoners out on early release is like absolving them of their crimes. Regardless of how hard she tries, Britney's not Madonna. To be fair, Madonna wasn't Madonna at first either, but emulating, someone else- even if they're as successful as Madonna-Usually doesnt work in the end
Scare Tactics, Either-or Choices, Slippery slope, Sentimental Appeals, Bandwagon Appeals
Appeal to False Authority, Dogmatism, Moral Equivalence, Ad Hominem
Hasty Generalization, Faulty Causlity, Begging The Question, Equivocation, Non Sequitur, The Straw Man,
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