47 terms

AP Biology Test Prep Chapter 16: Human Reproduction

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Primary Sex Characteristics
The sexual organs that assist in the vital process of procreation; include the testes, ovaries, and uterus.
Secondary Sex Characteristics
The noticeable physical characteristics that differ between males and females such as facial hair, deepness of voice, breasts, and muscle distribution.
Seminiferous Tubules
Actual site of sperm production.
Interstitial Cells
The structures that produce the hormones involved in the male reproductive system.
Epididymis
The coiled region that extends from the testes. This is where the sperm completes its maturation and waits until it is called on to do its duty.
Vas Deferens
Tunnel that connects the epididymis to the uretha.
Uretha
Exit point for both urine and sperm from males and urine from females.
Prostate Gland
Structure whose function in the male reproductive system is to add a basic liquid to the mix to help neutralize the acidity of the urine that may remain in the common urethal passage.
Seminal Vesicles
Structures that dump fluids into the ejaculatory duct to send along with the sperm, providing three important advantages to the sperm: energy by adding fructose; power to progress through the female reproductive system by adding prostaglandin which stimulates uterine contraction; and mucus, which helps the sperm swim more efficiently.
Oviduct
Also known as the fallopian tube, this is the site of fertilization and connects the ovary to the uterus.
Uterus
Site of embryo attachment and development in mammals.
Endometrium
Inner wall of the uterus to which the embryo attaches.
Cervix
The uterus connects to the vaginal opening via this narrow region.
Oogenesis
Process by which female gametes are formed. Each meiotic cycle leads to the production of a single ovum, or egg.
Primary Oocytes
Cells that begin the process of meiosis and progress until prophase I, where they sit halted until the host female enters puberty.
Secondary Oocytes
An oocyte that has half the genetic information of the parent cell, but the majority of its cytoplasm.
Spermatogenesis
Process by which the male gametes are formed. Four haploid sperm are produced during each meiotic cycle. This does not begin until puberty, and it occurs in the seminiferous tubules.
Primary Spermatocytes
Produced my mitotic cell division, these cells immediately undergo meiosis I to produce two secondary spermatocytes.
Secondary Spermatocytes
Cells formed during spermatogenesis that give rise to two spermatids each via meiosis II.
Spermatids
Immature sperm that enter the epididymis, where their waiting game begins and maturation is completed.
Cleavage Divisions
When the developing embryo divides and the cytoplasm is distributed unevenly to the daughter cells while the genetic i formation is distributed equally.
Morula
A structure formed during the cleavage divisions of the zygote.
Blastula
As a morula undergoes its next round of cell divisions, fluid fills its center to create this hollow-looking structure
Inner Cell Mass
Portion of the blastula that develops into the embryo.
Trophoblast
Forms the placenta for the developing fetus, and aids in attachment to the endometrium. This structure also produces hCG, which maintains the endometrium by ensuring the continued production of progesterone.
Gastrulation
When embryonic cells seperate into three primary layers called germ layers, which eventually give rise to the different tissues of an adult.
Epiblast
Develops into the three germ layers of the embryo: the endoderm, the mesoderm, and the ectoderm.
Hypoblast
Forms the yolk sac, which produces the embryo's first blood cells.
Placenta
In humans, this structure provides the nutrients for the developing embryo.
Endoderm
Inner germ layer that gives rise to the inner lining of the gut, digestive system, liver, thyroid, lungs, and bladder.
Mesoderm
Intermediate germ layer that gives rise to the muscle, the circulatory system, the reproductive system, excretory organs, bones and connective tissues of the gut and exterior of the body.
Ectoderm
Outer germ layers that gives rise to the nervous system, skin, hair and nails.
Notochord
Structure that serves to support the body. Found in the embryos of chordates.
Neural Plate
Structure that becomes the neural groove, which eventually becomes the neural tube.
Neural Tube
Embryonic structure that gives rise to the central nervous system.
Somite
Structure that gives rise to the muscles and vertebrae in mammals.
Yolk Sac
Extraembryonic structure derived from the hypoblast; site of early blood cell creation in humans. Source of nutrients for bird ad reptile embryos.
Chorion
Extraembryonic structure formed from the trophoblast; the outer membrane of the embryo. Site of implantation onto the endometrium. Contributes to the formation of the placenta in mammals.
Allantois
Extraembryonic structure that functions as a mammalian waste transporter. Later it becomes the umbilical cord, which carries oxygen, food and wastes (including CO2) back and forth from placenta to embryo.
Amnion
Extraembryonic structure formed from the epiblast. Surrounds fluid-filled cushion that protects the developing embryo. Present in birds, lizards, and humans.
Induction
The ability of one group of cells to influence the development of another. This influence can be through physical contact or chemical signaling.
Homeotic Genes
Genes that regulate or "direct" the body plan of organisms.
Homeobox
DNA sequence of a homeotic gene that tells the cell where to put body structures.
Cytoplasmic Distribution
Asymmetry contributes to differentiation, since different areas have different amounts of cytoplasm, and thus perhaps different organelles and cytoplasmic structures.
LH Surge
Giant release of LH that triggers ovulation- the release of a secondary oocyte from the ovary.
Ovulation
Stage of menstrual cycle in which the secondary oocyte is released from the ovary.
Menstrual Cycle
Cycle of hormonal activity during which an egg develops and is released from an ovary and the uterus is prepared to receive a fertilized egg.
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