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Minerals as Micronutrients
Terms in this set (31)
A mutation that ___ the Km of Glucokinase causes someone to have hypoglycemia.
Most Common Mineral Deficiencies and their Major Targets
Iron Deficiency is a major problem during...
...Pregnancy and Early Childhood
Iron Deficiency impairs...
...growth and cognitive function
Two Major Causes of Iron Deficiency
-Increased Iron Requirements
-Inadequate Iron Absorption
Increased Iron Requirements occur during...
-Blood Loss: menstruation, trauma, GI Tract Ulcers/Bleeding, birth
-Pregnancy: increased diet requirement
-Growth: especially in kids
Inadequate Iron Absorption occurs due to...
-Disrupted Intestinal Absorption (Crohn's Disease, Celiac Disease, Gastric Bypass)
-Diet: if you have inadequate amounts in your diet or if the Iron you eat isn't very bioavailable.
Dietary Sources of Iron
-Red meats, shell fish, fortified cereals, spinach, beans, tomatoes etc.
Influences on Increase Absorption of Iron
-Iron in diet as heme (high bioavailability)
-Vitamin C consumed simultaneously with non-heme iron
-Iron deficiency triggers increased iron absorption via ferroportin (decreased hepcidin)
__ can inhibit the absorption of Iron and other minerals.
-CHELATORS (like Oxalate or Polyphenol)
Two Ways Vitamin C Increases Iron Uptake
(1) the prevention of the formation of insoluble and unabsorbable iron compounds and
(2) the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron, which seems to be a requirement for the uptake of iron into the mucosal cells.
Why is it so important that the absorption of iron into the body is very tightly regulated?
-there is a very slim therapeutic window.
-there is no physiological way to get rid of it once it is absorbed.
Low serum ferritin is 98% specific for iron deficiency. However, it is only 75% sensitive. Why?
-Even if you have low iron and, if your body is under stress and inflammation, you will have high ferritin.
Given the global frequency of iron deficiency (particularly in women and children) are there any downsides to iron fortification of foods (primarily cereals and flour)?
-Could cause Iron Overload in people who are NOT Deficient!
High serum ferritin and high dietary (heme) iron is associated with...
...diabetes (2-7X greater risk) and heart disease
Diabetes, Ferritin, and Disease
-Hemochromatosis -> diabetes due to beta cell destruction ("Bronze diabetes")
-Frequent blood donation associated with decrease in cardiac events and improved insulin sensitivity
-Rats and mice strains prone to diabetes -> reduced iron reduces their risk of developing diabetes
Iron Poisoning Basics
-Iron is corrosive to GI Mucosa. If you get rid of the Mucosa, absorption goes unregulated!
Iron Poisoning Systemic Affects
-heart, lungs and liver including acidosis
Iron Poisoning Treatment
-Deferoxamine: an iron chelator
-Deferoxamine: a bacterial siderophore used as a chelating agent to remove excess iron from the body.
Low Alkaline Phosphatase Activity and Cholesterol indicates...?
Zinc Deficiency (Acrodermatitis)
Alkaline Phosphatase Activity is Low in Zinc Deficiency because...
...its active site usually has two zincs! Zinc is also required in Superoxide Dismutase and Zinc-Finger TF
Zinc Deficiency Treatment
-supplementation with Zinc Sulfate
Zinc deficiency most often occurs when...
...zinc intake is inadequate or poorly absorbed, when there are increased losses of zinc from the body, or when the body's requirement for zinc increases.
Signs of zinc deficiency include...
...growth retardation, hair loss, diarrhea, delayed sexual maturation and impotence, eye and skin lesions, and loss of appetite.
-There is also evidence that weight loss, delayed healing of wounds, taste abnormalities, and mental lethargy can occur. Since many of these symptoms are general and are associated with other medical conditions, do not assume they are due to a zinc deficiency.
Maternal zinc deficiency can slow...
-Zinc supplementation has improved growth rate in some children who demonstrate mild to moderate growth failure and who also have a zinc deficiency. Human milk does not provide recommended amounts of zinc for older infants between the ages of 7 months and 12 months, so breast-fed infants of this age should also consume age-appropriate foods containing zinc or be given formula containing zinc.
Anemia and Neutropenia can be a result of...
-Zinc Overdose and Copper Deficiency
-excess Zinc inhibits Copper Absorption and Transport
Why do humans need copper?
-Ceruloplasmin (aka ferroxidase) is a copper protein in the blood that oxidizes Fe2+ to Fe3+, allowing the iron to bind to transferrin.
-Hephaestin: copper-requiring ferroxidase in the duodenum required for iron absorption.
-Superoxide dismutase, cytochrome c oxidase and other oxidases all require copper at their active sites
-Severe copper deficiency results in neurological degeneration in addition to anemia.
The micro-minerals known to be required in humans are:
-Iron, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Selenium, Iodide, Fluoride, Molybdenum
Zinc deficiency causes...
...acrodermatitis and growth retardation in children
Copper deficiency causes...
...anemia and leukopenia; severe copper deficiency causes neuropathy.
Excessive zinc intake can inhibit...
...copper absorption. (True for other mineral pairs, as well)
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