a member of the race of people living in North America when Europeans arrived
being or composed of people inhabiting a region from the beginning
hold back or set aside, especially for future use or contingency
registered or status First Nations
Individuals registered as First Nations under the "Indian Act"
a legal claim to one's original territory
how did people first come to the new world?
arrived on a temporary land bridge between Asia and Alaska
what lies there now?
water, when the climate in north America began to warm up, sea levels began to rise and the land bridge disappeared
what were these people called?
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next (group that has its own stories and way of life)
the movement of people
followed herds of animals
how had it been proven that the migration theory is correct?
*there were physical similarities between north American natives and Asians *similar types of animals existed in north America and Asia *human remains found on other continents date back thousands of years, but remains in north America are not as old
who were the Vikings?
Norse (mainly from Norway) who traveled by boat as far as Iceland and Greenland
how did they get their name?
raiders in long ships
what lands did the Vikings discover?
Helluland (land of flat stones) markland (land of woods) and vinland (land of wine)
what are they called today?
Baffin Island, Labrador and Nova Scotia or Massachusetts
why is L'anse aux meadows significant?
because without the discovery of L'anse aux meadows, many would still believe that vikings never settled in north America
what treasures were European's looking for in north America?
spices and silk
how did they preserve fish?
2 inventions that helped sailors with navigation
the compass- had a needle that always pointed north so that a sailor could tell the direction even when clouds covered the moon or sun. astrolabe- allowed sailors to steer by the stars
who were Magellan and Columbus?
Christopher Columbus- sailed in 1492, sailed for Spain, landed in central and south America, found silver and gold.
Ferdinand Magellan- sailed in 1519, for Spain found the southwest passage to Asia and pacific ocean and named it strait of Magellan
why are they significant?
Columbus was known for being the first European to "truly discover North America"
what is a saga?
long poems that tell of disgusting deeds and horrible happenings
who is John Cabot?
an explorer (1450-1498)
where was he from?
why is he significant?
he was the first European to discover canada
describe Cartier's first voyage
left in 1534 with two ships, he was looking for riches in the new world
what did he do on his first voyage?
proved Newfoundland was an island and sailed to PEI and around Newbrunswick and the Gaspe Peninsula. he also encountered a group of first nations people and their chief, Donnacona
what happened when he left?
he kidnapped Donnacona's sons and took them back to France
describe Cartier's second voyage
returned with the boys in 1534 & three ships.
what did he do on his second voyage?
he traveled down the st.Lawrence river to aboriginal village Stadacona (Quebec city). he also discovered Hochelaga and named it "mount royal" (Montreal)
what happened when he left?
gave first nations peoples a number of diseases and he kidnapped Donnacona and a few other villagers to take back to France
describe Cartier's third voyage
1541 went back to Stadacona
what did he do on his third voyage?
tried to set up a large colony along the St. Lawrence river
what happened when he left?
left with gold and diamonds which turned out to be fools gold and quartz. charted one of the worlds great rivers & gave France a claim on the mainland
why did Cartier kidnap Donnacona's sons?
he thought it was the best way to avoid conflict between him and Donnacona. he knew it was important to have native guides who could speak a little french. he knew king Francis would be impressed if he could see native people from the new land
what is scurvy?
how is it caused?
by a lack of vitamin C
what does it do?
caused limbs to become swollen, teeth to loosen, and mouths to fill with sores.
where did the name Canada come from?
Donnacona's sons were on the boat back to stadacona, they pointed to a way past the island and into river and said "the way to Canada"
who did Champlain come to north America with?
Pierre de Monts
what was his job?
he was a map maker and navigator for de Monts
where was the first settlement?
St. Croix (Bay of Fundy)
what happened there?
started a settlement where during the winter, 36 of the 80 settlers died due to scurvy.
what is the order of good cheer?
a club. every 2 weeks one of he settlers acted as host for a special evening
what were the two theories about the disappearance of the first nations at Stadacona and Hochelaga
*wiped out by European disease *climate change-crop failure
what is Champlain's nick name?
the father of France
why did he get it?
he was the first explorer to establish and maintain a permanent colony on the mainland
what is the green method?
where fish were cleaned immediately on board the ship and packed into layers of salt
what is a monopoly?
the merchant was the only one allowed to trade in the territory. all of the profits would be that trader's alone.
what is an arquebus?
an obsolete firearm with a long barrel (weapon)
how did Champlain gain trust with the first nations?
he helped defeat an Iroquois group & joined an attack force.