how did people first come to the new world?
arrived on a temporary land bridge between Asia and Alaska
what lies there now?
water, when the climate in north America began to warm up, sea levels began to rise and the land bridge disappeared
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next (group that has its own stories and way of life)
how had it been proven that the migration theory is correct?
*there were physical similarities between north American natives and Asians
*similar types of animals existed in north America and Asia
*human remains found on other continents date back thousands of years, but remains in north America are not as old
who were the Vikings?
Norse (mainly from Norway) who traveled by boat as far as Iceland and Greenland
what lands did the Vikings discover?
Helluland (land of flat stones) markland (land of woods) and vinland (land of wine)
why is L'anse aux meadows significant?
because without the discovery of L'anse aux meadows, many would still believe that vikings never settled in north America
2 inventions that helped sailors with navigation
the compass- had a needle that always pointed north so that a sailor could tell the direction even when clouds covered the moon or sun.
astrolabe- allowed sailors to steer by the stars
who were Magellan and Columbus?
Christopher Columbus- sailed in 1492, sailed for Spain, landed in central and south America, found silver and gold.
Ferdinand Magellan- sailed in 1519, for Spain found the southwest passage to Asia and pacific ocean and named it strait of Magellan
why are they significant?
Columbus was known for being the first European to "truly discover North America"
describe Cartier's first voyage
left in 1534 with two ships, he was looking for riches in the new world
what did he do on his first voyage?
proved Newfoundland was an island and sailed to PEI and around Newbrunswick and the Gaspe Peninsula. he also encountered a group of first nations people and their chief, Donnacona
what did he do on his second voyage?
he traveled down the st.Lawrence river to aboriginal village Stadacona (Quebec city). he also discovered Hochelaga and named it "mount royal" (Montreal)
what happened when he left?
gave first nations peoples a number of diseases and he kidnapped Donnacona and a few other villagers to take back to France
what happened when he left?
left with gold and diamonds which turned out to be fools gold and quartz. charted one of the worlds great rivers & gave France a claim on the mainland
why did Cartier kidnap Donnacona's sons?
he thought it was the best way to avoid conflict between him and Donnacona. he knew it was important to have native guides who could speak a little french. he knew king Francis would be impressed if he could see native people from the new land
where did the name Canada come from?
Donnacona's sons were on the boat back to stadacona, they pointed to a way past the island and into river and said "the way to Canada"
what happened there?
started a settlement where during the winter, 36 of the 80 settlers died due to scurvy.
what is the order of good cheer?
a club. every 2 weeks one of he settlers acted as host for a special evening
what were the two theories about the disappearance of the first nations at Stadacona and Hochelaga
*wiped out by European disease
*climate change-crop failure
why did he get it?
he was the first explorer to establish and maintain a permanent colony on the mainland
what is the green method?
where fish were cleaned immediately on board the ship and packed into layers of salt
what is a monopoly?
the merchant was the only one allowed to trade in the territory. all of the profits would be that trader's alone.