Human Geography: Unit 6

Alexis Nguyennnn
acid rain
by-product of air pollution, which forms when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the atmosphere by bruning fossil fuels
If several industries cluster in one city, they can provide support by sharing talents, services, and facilities. explains location of industry
transfer of cargo fromone type of carrier to another
bulk-reducing industries, bulk-gaining industries
- usually locates factories close to raw materials because the raw materials are heavier and bulkier than the finished products

-factory locations are usually determined by accessibility to the market
capitalist world economy
a global economic system that is based in high-income nations with market economies
compressed modernity
rapid economic and political change that transformed the country into a stable nation with democratizing political institutions, a growing economy, and an expanding web of nongovernmental institutions
conglomerate corporations
comprised of many smaller firms that support the overall industry
the exodus of businesses from a crowded area
a phenomenon where employment in manufacturing as a share of total employment has fallen dramatically in the more developed countries
dependency theory
holds that economic development of many countries in the world is blocked by the fact that industrialized nations exploit them.
distance decay
Largely because of the friction of distance, industries are more likely to serve markets of nearby places than those far away. As distance increased, business activity decreases until it becomes impractical to do business.
economic development
the process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
economic geography
a discipline that studies the impact of economic activities on the landscape and investigates reasons behind the locations of economic activities
export-oriented industrialization
directly integrates their economies into the global economy by concentrating on economic production to find a place in international markets
footloose industry
neither resource or market oriented
friction of distance
Although secondary industry may transport raw materials to factories, the cost usually goes up the farther the distance of transport form source to factory. At some point, the distance is too great for practical transportation
fossil fuels
residues of plants and animals that were buried millions of years ago
global warming
the increase in earth's temperature caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels
GDP, GDP per capita
the value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country during a year; a measure of the average person's contribution to generating a country's wealth in a year
greenhouse effect
an anticipated warming of earth's surface that could melt the polar icecaps and raise the level of the oceans enough to destroy coastal cities
the process by which economic activities on the earth's surface evolved from producing basic, primary goods (such as food products) to using factories for mass-producing goods for consumption
Industrial Revolution
began industrialization in England during the late 18th century
services that support economic activities
international division of labor
where some components of products are made in one country and others in another
Kanto Plain
Japan's dominant region of industrialization, which includes Tokyo and other nearby cities and suburbs that form a huge metropolitan area
labor intensive industries
industries that require a lot of hard work
location theory
explains the locational pattern of economic activities by identifying factors that influence this pattern
locational interdependence theory
the influence on a firm's locational decision by locations chosen by its competitors
maquiladora district
A manufacturing zone that was created in the 1969s in northern Mexico just south of the border with the US.
Meiji Restoration
a remarkable government-sponsored campaign for modernization and colonization
modernization model
(also called the westernization model) states that Britain was first to reach industrialization because of prosperity, trade connections, inventions, and natural resources. other British colonies followed because they were influenced by British economic ways. If other countries want to experience the same benefits of westernization, they must study the paths taken by industrialized countries.Tradition is the greatest barrier to economic development.
more developed country, less developed country
countries that have experienced industrialization; countries that have no experienced industrialization
a treaty signed in 1995 by Mexico, the US, and Canada, which eliminated barriers (including most tariffs) to free trade among the three countries
new international division of labor
a process that keeps global inequalities in place
newly industrializing country
countries that have experienced economic growth and are somewhere between MDC and LDC status
Northeast District (China)
China's earliest industrial heartland in Manchuria, centered on the region's coal and iron deposits near the city of Shenyang
Oligarchs (Japan)
industrial and military leaders that came to political power
Pacific Rim
countries that border the Pacific Ocean on their eastern shores
post-industrial societies
countries where most people are no longer employed in industry
primary economic activities, primary sector
directly extracts products from the earth
primary industry, secondary industry
- develops around the location of natural resources, such as the industrial belt in the British Midlands
- less dependent on resource location. raw materials may be transported to the factories for manufacture
proven reserve, potential reserve
- energy deposits that have been discovered
- undiscovered energy deposits
quaternary sector
often seen as a subset of the tertiary sector, includes jobs concerned with research and development, management and administration, and processing and disseminating information
Rostow, W.W., Rostow's stages
US economist & political theorist;

-traditional stage
-take-off stage
-drive to technological maturity
-high mass consumption
secondary economic activities, secondary sector
transforms raw materials into usable products, giving them usefulness
secondary industrial region
lie south of the world's primary industrial region. developed later, and their industrial centers are not as large, but their economies are growing
single market manufacturers
sells one type of product, such as clothing manufacturers shipping to New York CIty, cluster near their markets
site factors
particular to a geographic location and focus on varying costs of land, labor, and capital
social development
an alteration in the social structure of a social group or society, ie. a change in the nature, social institutions, social behaviours or social relations of a society.
space-time compression
describes the reduction in time it takes to diffuse something to a distance place as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Special Economic Zones
government-designated areas where foreign investment is allowed and capitalistic ventures are encouraged
substitution principle
suggests that business owners can juggle expenses, as long as labor, land rents, transportation and other costs don't all go up at one time
sustainable development
where people living today should not impair the ability of future generations to meet their needs
tertiary sector
part of the economy that involves services rather than goods
trading blocs
conglomerations of trade among countries within a region
transnational corporations
companies that operate factories in countries other than the ones in which they are headquartered
value added productivity
figured by subtracting the costs of raw materials and energy from the gross value of the product
variable revenue analysis
the firm's ability to capture a market that will earn it more customers and money than its competitors
Wallerstien, Emanuel
first explained economic development in 1974 using a model of the capitalist world economy
Watt, James
created the steam engine, which allowed much more flexible use of energy to drive new machines
Weber, Alfred
German economic geography who developed a model for the location of secondary industries and published "Theory of the Location of Industries" in 1909.