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King Henry VIII

What: English King
When: 1500's
Where: England
Significance: King who was cut off from the Roman Church because he impregnated his future wife (who gave birth to Queen Elizabeth). Started the Anglican Church which he was the head of in order to play part in the church.

Elizabeth I

ruled from 1558-1603; followed a policy that was a middle course between Catholic and Protestant extremes. She sets up a national Church, is declared head of the Anglican Church, establishes a state Church that moderates Catholics and Protestants, allowed priests to marry, allowed sermons to be delivered in English, and made the Book of Common Prayer more acceptable to Catholics.

John Calvin

What: Protestant reformer
When: 1500's
Where: France/Switzerland
Significance: founder of Calvinism, systematic theologian, wrote "Institutes of the Christian Religion" Agreed with Luther mostly, but spread further with God's sovereignty. Calvin spoke of predestination


Total depravity
Unconditional Election
Limited atonement
Irresistable grace
Perseverance of the saints

Presbyterian church government

Reverse hierarchy. people at bottom elect those in charge. This was the set up for American politics

Francis Bacon

Who: philosopher, essayist, defender of Scientific Revolution
Where: England
When: 1600
Significance: defended Scientific Revolution, inductive scientific method (look at particulars, expand to general)

Peace of Westphalia

What: treaties that officially ended the 30 years' war in Germany
When: 1648
Where: Germany
Significance: Said that every German state was free to choose its own religion, pretty much end of HRE, splits in religion made permanent

Ingnatius Loyola

What: Spanish soldier/religious leader
When: 1500s
Where: Spain
Significance: founder of the Jesuits, wrote "The Spiritual Exercises," stressed submission to hierarchical church; thought 'sola gratia' was dangerous


What: the movement that seeks to explain all of reality using reason and science
When: 17th c - 18th c
Where: Starts in W Europe
Sig: Ushers in the modern age; transforms the way that people think about science, philosophy, art, politics, economics and religion

Immanuel Kant

who: Pilosopher
where: germany
Sig: think for yourself. Maturity. courage to use your own understanding. Enlightenment is the act of personal courage. Steping away from the church because the catholic church spoon fed the people info. he encourages you to discover on your own.

Laws of Nature

Philosophy that was about natural rights; the belief that everyone should follow certain moral rules and that those rules are often self-evident.

council of trent

What: Group who met to determine differences between Protestants and Catholics
When: 1545 - 1563
Where: Trent (border between Germany and Italy)
Significance: scripture and tradition were affirmed as equal authorities (only the church could interpret scripture). Both faith and Good works were necessary for salvation. The 7 sacraments, transubstantiation and clerical celibacy were all upheld, purgatory was strengthened but the indulgences were no longer sold.

Book of common prayer

What: revised Protestant liturgy - service manual for the Church of England
When: 1550
Where: England
Significance: Elaborate new prayer book that gave the clergy the right of marriage, the elimination of images, and moved the Church of England in a more Protestant direction

Mary I

Daughter of Catherine and Henry VIII, tried to return England to Catholicism, killed many protestant heretics. Bloody mary


What: English Protestants inspired by Calvinist theology
When: 1600's
Where: England
Significance: wished to remove all traces of Catholicism from the Church of England, further helped to sculpt the English Reformation - took over Parliament and forced King to make changes, King refused, caused civil war
some stayed to attempt to reform the Anglican church while others fled to the American colonies.

The institutes

What: Synthesis of Protestant thought (written by Calvin)
When: 1536
Where: Switzerland
Significance: T.U.L.I.P. Total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistible grace, perseverance of the saints. Calvin laid forth his ideas and what he believed the protestant religion was about.

thomas cranmer

took over after Henry. Took the church to the protestant extreme.

Francis Xavier

This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
missionary in china


What: "society of Jesus" founded by Ignatius of Loyola
When: 1500s
Where: Spain
Significance: The Jesuits became a group that was formed on absolute obedience to the papacy, the use of education to achieve goals, and dedication to engage in "conflict for God." They became a structured military group and were important in the papal policy. Big missionary group


Who: Scientist, astronomer
Where: Italy
When: 1600
Significance: First European to make systematic observations by means of a telescope. Discovered imperfections in heavenly realms, He was condemned by the Catholic Church and this hindered further scientific work in Italy.

Isaac Newton

Who: Mathematician, Philosopher
Where: 1700
When: England
Significance: Pieced together a coherent synthesis for a new cosmology and used mathematical proofs to demonstrate his universal law of gravitation. Combined the theories of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. He invented calculus!

Thomas Hobbes

Who: philosopher, a political thinker
Where: England
When: 1600s
Significance: believed that we were born with animalistic instincts seeking peace to follow (natural state is war) so therefore rights are laid down and a sovereign (Leviathan) leader is followed (God) → Social Contract Theory (motive for this is security).

Scientific Revolution

What: period of time marked by a revolution in science and intellectual life
Where: Europe
When: 17th century
Significance new view/knowledge of the universe (How things work) based on increasingly secular sources of authority for knowledge, formed basis for modern science, (look to intellectuals and science as authority on knowledge rather than God and the Bible, something still evident today)


1596-1650 (french)
Mathematical contributions
Generalizations is the bases
Father of modern philosophy
When: early 17th c
Where: France
Sig: Tries to elevate christianity to the same level of science. Throws out everything he is capable of doubting. becomes a blank slate. Then adds things back. comes up with an argument for God that is reasonable to someone who doesnt believe it.

John Locke

Who: Social Contract Theorist, philosopher
Where: England
When: late 1600s
Sig: argued that all men were born with natural rights and that a government's purpose was to protect these rights
"christianity must pass the test of reason"
Democratic method. We elect the government


What can we know for certain?
Reason is the source of clear and distinct knowledge


philosophical belief that knowledge is gained from experience of senses


What: A school of thought in which a deity is acknowledged, but is not involved anymore
Where: Western Europe, US
When: 18th century
Significance: Belief in God as the creator of the universe, but that once he created it he had no direct involvement in it and that it runs on Natural Law. Founding fathers were deists → affected how our country was structured
Our society is going away from the involved God. A willingness to break tradition and authority. Dont treasure scripture as much ex Jefferson bible. makes a bible more of a rule book then a guide


Attempt to revive German protestantism in late 17th c and early 18th c
Emphasis on New birth and new life
Scripture over doctrine
Set apart from world but active in it

John Wesley

Who: founder of the methodists
when: mid to late 18th c
Where: England
Sig: All could be saved through experience. tried to revive english protestants through this, created methodists. quadrilateral scripture tradition reason experience. saw christians as ppl who transformed culture. they should be evangelizing and causing social reform.


Who: French philosopher and mathametician
When: 1623-1662
Where: france
Sig: sought to reconcile faith and scientific findings. Believing with the Heart is a big thing. wants science and reason to be reconciled. Less about strict doctrine and more about the experience of christianity. Pietist.

Glorious Revolution

"bloodless Revolution" William and many protestants take the throne. Goes smoothly - bill of rights

French Revolution

long complicated, bloody revolution against inequality of rights between "three estates" no successful resolution "Liberty, equality, fraternity"

Johnathan Edwards

corresponds with great philosophers
christian preacher and theologian
-sinners in the hands of an angry God
reformed theology
effects of his preaching
-Holy Rollers
-Barking like dogs


Who: philosopher, author
Where: France
When: 1700s
Significance: Greatest figure of the Enlightenment. Defender of civil liberties. Criticized traditional religion. Deist. believed in religious toleration


means Knowledge/understanding
addresses questions
-What is knowledge
-How is knowledge aquired

Mary Wollstonecraft

Who: Philosopher, writer, feminist
Where: England
When: 18th century
Significance: Wrote a Vindication for the Rights of Women, believed both men and women were at fault for the maltreatment of women. Argued for a social order based on reason

Adam Smith

Who: Economist
Where: England
When: 18th century
Significance: founder of modern capitalism, shift from local to global markets, development of corporations, ability to pursue private profits w/ minimum regulation

Thomas Hobbes

Who: social contract theorist
Sig: Hobbs says we give our authority over to a monarch. soveign authority with much power. Locke is a democratic gov.

william wilberforce

British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.

columbian exchange

The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.


wrote to the pope. scared that he would be rejected. Polish scientist whose book, on the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres, put forth an initial argument for the idea that the earth revolved around the sun.
from poland

predestination and election

What: theory regarding salvation put forth by Calvin
When: 1500s
Where: Switzerland
Significance: The belief associated with Calvinism, that God, as a consequence of his foreknowledge at all events, has predetermined those who will be saved (the elect) and those who will be damned.


Who: Mathematician and astronomer
Where: Poland
When: 1500
Significance: believed in a heliocentric theory universe with 8 planets. He also said that the earth rotated to cause things to seem to revolve around it. Most people weren't ready to accept this idea.

Laws of Nature

What: principles discoverable by human reason that explain/predict regularity in nature
Where: Europe
When: Scientific Revolution
Significance: replaces faith and miracles as a means of explaining nature, influenced Locke and Jefferson

Jean Jacques Rousseau

Who: Philosopher
Where: Paris
When: 1700s
Significance: Social Contract Theory, tried to harmonize individual liberty with governmental authority. What was best for all was best for each individual, wanted participatory democracy. Important in development of romanticism

Social Contract Theory

What: a political theory: you give up some of your freedoms in order for protection
Where: Western Europe
When: 17th c.
Significance: Our founding fathers relied a lot on John Lockes writtings who took this theory to heart. It was the foundatoin of American government. God isn't as previlent as much as he was thought to be earlier. He isn't putting in place a king as he used to.

Laissez faire

What: "Let it alone" (French) Economic policy
Where: western world
When: late 18th century
Significance: The state should not interrupt the free play of natural economic forces by government regulation of the economy, but should instead leave it alone. Free trade. Adam smith was the thinker behind this term. economic growth for western powers. from staterun to individual run organizations. self interest becomes more vertuous.

Act of supremecy

Henry declares himself head of church in 1534

columbian exchange

What: large transfer of goods and diseases
When: late 1400's to 1500's
where: old world and new world
Sig. transfered goods and diseases from the old world to the new world.

Middle Passage

What: slave trade travels
When: 1451 to 1860
where: between africa and america
Sig: transfer of 11 million african people from their country. awful conditions. begins a long tradition of american conflict between races. it was injustic at the hands of professing christians.

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