The name given to a campaign in January 1968 by the Viet Cong to attack twenty-seven South Vietnamese cities, including Saigon. It ended in a military defeat for the Viet Cong, but at the same time, proved that Johnson's "gradual escalation" strategy was not working, shocking an American public that believed the Vietnam conflict was a sure victory
Civil Rights Act (1964)
Passed by Congress in 1964 in honor of the late President Kennedy. This act banned racial discrimination in places such as hospitals and restaurants. This act also gave the government the power to desegregate schools. It led to the creation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
(1964) abolished the poll tax in federal elections. This joined the blacks with the whites during the civil rights movement.
Voting Rights Act
This act, passed in 1965, outlawed literacy tests and sent federal voter registrars into several Southern states. This act did not end discrimination and oppression overnight, but it helped blacks get a foothold on change.
Operation Rolling Thunder
launched by President Johnson; a massive air bombardment of North Vietnam, in April of 1965. The targets were directly chosen by the president. These were regular full scale bombing attacks against Vietnam.
In January 1968 during the Vietnam War the North Koreans seized the "Pueblo", a U.S. intelligence ship, evidently in international waters. They imprisoned the crew of some eighty men for eleven months. This episode stirred American anger, but provoked no military response.
this was President Johnson's policy. It was a continuation of the democratic ideals of FDR's New Deal and Truman's Fair Deal. It was a war on poverty in which such issues as health care, education, and welfare were covered and increased in importance. (Medicare and Medicaid)
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
In August 1964 shots were allegedly fired at American navy ships by the North Vietnamese. LBJ quickly ordered an air raid on North Vietnamese bases, and pushed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution through Congress. This gave the president a blank check to uses for further force in Southeast Asia. Because of this, LBJ had total control, and did not need the approval of Congress to enter the war.
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
(1963) Kennedy and the Russians signed a pact prohibiting trial nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. This was signed following the Cuban missile crisis.
March on Washington
In August of 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. organized a massive protest on Washington, D.C. where he gave his "I have a dream" speech. The march was organized to protest racial discrimination and to demonstrate support for major civil-rights legislation that was pending in Congress.
War on Poverty
The name President Lyndon Johnson gave to his crusade to improve the lifestyle of America's poor, especially those in Appalachia. It included economic and welfare measures aimed at helping the large percentage of Americans who lived in poverty.
this was the new programs introduced by President Kennedy in the early 1960's. These programs included the space program to the moon and the peace corp.
Kennedy proposed this which was an army of idealistic and mostly youthful volunteers to bring American skills to underdeveloped countries.
Alliance for Progress
this was a Marshall Plan for Latin America that was suggested by President Kennedy to help the Good Neighbors close the gap between the rich and the poor and to help quiet the communist agitation. It was unsuccessful because there was little alliance and no progress.
Bay of Pigs
Kennedy was told that there were enough people in Cuba that would support an uprising, so he sent American troops along with Cuban exiles to the Bay of Pigs. When no one was there to support the raid, Kennedy withdrew air support. Therefore, Castro was able to defeat the uprising. This was Kennedy's big failure in his foreign policy.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In Oct. of 1962, U.S. intelligence confirmed reports that the U.S.S.R. was constructing missile launching sites in Cuba. President Kennedy rejected a full-scale attack and, instead, delivered a public ultimatum to the U.S.S.R. The U.S.S.R. backed down and the U.S. promised not to overthrow the Cuban government.
elected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using "Vietnamization", which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine also. He was involved in D'tente, which was a way to create peaceful relations between the United States and the communist countries of Moscow and Beij
A third party ticket candidate for the American Independent party in 1968 that lost against Nixon. He was a former governor of Alabama and had stood in the doorway to prevent black students from entering the University of Alabama.
Kennedy's plan to deal with foreign powers by not always resorting to nuclear weapons but using specialist like the Green Beret
This was the gap between the people and the government that grew as the people became disillusioned with the Vietnam war and Watergate.
he was a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr. but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying," black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
a little known Democratic Senator from Minnesota, he represented the Democratic party in the 1968 presidential election. He was a devout Catholic and a soft-spoken, sometimes poet. He used a group of antiwar college students as his campaign workers. He, with the help of his "Children's Crusade", got 42% of the democratic votes and 20 out of 24 convention delegates.
The democratic nominee for the presidency in the election of 1968. He was LBJ's vice president, and was supportive of his Vietnam policies. This support split the Democratic party, allowing Nixon to win the election for the Republicans.
Republican senator from Arizona nominated on the Republican ticket for the Presidency in the election of 1964. He ran against Lyndon B. Johnson and lost the election.
a black Muslim preacher who favored black separation and condemned the "blue-eyed white devils". He was shot by a black gunmen while giving a speech in New York City. inspired by Islam and Muhammed. Action by even violence
he was the secretary of defense under Kennedy. He helped develop the flexible response policy. He was against the war in Vietnam and was removed from office because of this
Charles de Gaulle
President of France, he was suspicious of American plans for Europe, and wanted to recapture the feeling of the Napoleonic era. He constantly vetoed actions by or in the interest of the U.S. that would increase their control in European affairs.
A leader in the civil rights movement in the 1950's and 1960's. Preached non-violent forms of revolting such as sit-ins and friendly protests. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968.
Lee Harvey Oswald
On November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas. He was later shot in front of television cameras by Jack Ruby.
A democratic egotist. He was Kennedy's vice president, and became president when Kennedy was assassinated. He escalated the war in Vietnam and the failure to win the war was blamed on him. Johnson had a great domestic policy called " The Great Society" and helped push for the passing of the civil rights act to end discrimination. He also issued all federal contractors to take "affirmative action" against discrimination.
He was the youngest most glamorous president ever elected. He won the 1960 presidential election against Nixon. He was the first Catholic president. During his presidency, he sent the Green Beret (Marines) to Vietnam. He helped develop the Peace Corps. His foreign policy was Flexible Response. His domestic program was the New Frontier. He appointed his brother, Robert Kennedy as Attorney General. Robert Kennedy dealt with the Civil Rights issue as well. John F. Kennedy was assassinated on Nov.22,1963.
Common Market (AKA European Union)
established to keep trade barriers and tariffs low in Europe. Eased trade between Europe and US
chartered buses to tour through the South to try and end segregation but white mobs often reacted violently towards them. This drew attention to segregation and what was happening in the south
Kennedy's June 11, 1963 Speech
JFK's speech urging immediate action towards racism/segregation "moral issue"
Medicare and Medicaid
gave certain rights to the elderly and the needy in terms of medicine and health maintenance
Selma-Montgomery Voter Registration March
MLK led people in a march for voting rights but was assaulted with tear gas by state troopers. LBJ responded by calling for American to overcome bigotry, racism, and discrimination
after the 24th amendment passe, both blacks and white student joined to combat discrimination and racism in the summer of 1964
Six Day War
Israel stunned the world by defeating Egypt and its Soviet backers; gained new territory in the Sinai Peninsula, including Jerusalem
Dominican Respublic Intervention
Johnson sent men to put down a supposedly communist coup and was denounced as over-anxious and too hyper
Reasons for Stagnant, Unresponsive Economy in the 1970s
Types of workers had changed (women and teens, some with less skills, occupied more of the job market than ever before), government regulations, shift from manufacturing to services, cost of Vietnam War drained $ from education, science, and manufacturing capacity, spiral of inflation, Great society program w/o tax increase, price increase in consumer goods tripled cost of living. Competition w/ Germany and Japan forces some businesses out of business
"Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries." -this oil cartel doubled their petroleum charges in 1979, helping American inflation rise well above 13%.
Iranian Hostage Crisis
called Carter's and America's bed of nails; captured Americans languished in cruel captivity; American nightly television news cast showed scenes of Iranians burning the American flag; Carter tried to apply economic sanctions and the pressure of world opinion against Iranians. Carter then called for rescue mission; rescue attempt failed; The stalemate with Iran went on through the rest of Carter's term hurting his bid for reelection.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks- A pact that served to freeze the numbers of long-range nuclear missiles for five years in 1972. This treaty between Nixon (U.S.), China, and the Soviet Union served to slow the arms race that had been going on between these nations since World War II.
this was a problem in Washington during the presidency of Richard Nixon. The members of an association working to have Nixon re-elected, CREEP, were involved in a burglary, and it was then linked to Nixon. The CREEP group had also gotten lots of money from unidentifiable places. Suspicion set in and Nixon was accused of getting illegal help in being re-elected. Nixon tried to use government to cover-up his involvement. Impeachment proceedings were started but Nixon resigned from his office in August of 1974.
Richard Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
War Powers Act
Passed during the Vietnam War, Congress passed this act to restrict Presidential powers dealing with war. It was passed over Nixon's veto, and required the President to report to Congress within 48 hours after committing troops to a foreign conflict or enlarging units in a foreign country.
During the Vietnam War, this was created. It stated that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments, but in the future other countries would have to fight their own wars without support of American troops.
My Lai Massacre
In 1968 American troops massacred women and children in this Vietnamese village; this deepened American people's disgust for the Vietnam War.
Kent State Killings
In April of 1970, police fired into an angry crowd of college students at Kent State University. Four students were killed and many others were wounded. The students were protesting against Nixon ordering US troops to seize Cambodia without consulting Congress.
This lowered the voting age to 18 years old. It was a result of the Vietnam war, in which young men felt that if they could fight, they should be able to vote.
A period of relaxed tension between the communist powers of the Soviet Union and China and the U.S. set up by Richard Nixon that established better relations between these countries to ease the Cold War. During this time the Anti-ballistic Missile treaty as well as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks were set up to prevent nuclear war
He was a Muslim holy man who sparked opposition toward the United States in the Middle East
Papers that "leaked" to "The New York Times" about the blunders and deceptions of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations in Vietnam, especially the provoking of the 1964 N. Vietnamese attack in the Gulf of Tonkin. This is linked to Watergate.
President Nixon's policy to withdraw the 540,000 U.S. troops in South Vietnam over an extended period. It would bring and end to the war in 1973.
This policy came into effect during the Nixon administration when members of the executive branch were being questioned by authorities. The policy stated that Congress could not question any of the past or present employees about any topic without the president's approval.
he was the Supreme Court justice during the Nixon administration. He was chosen by Nixon because of his strict interpretation of the Constitution. He presided over the extremely controversial case of abortion in Roe vs. Wade.
A Senator from South Dakota who ran for President in 1972 on the Democrat ticket. His promise was to pull the remaining American troops out of Vietnam in ninety days which earned him the support of the Anti-war party, and the working-class supported him, also. He lost however to Nixon.
He testified against Nixon as well as other cabinet members in the Watergate hearings. His testimony helped led to the removal of several White House officials and the resignation of Nixon. Before his testimony he had been a White House lawyer.
He was the first president to be solely elected by a vote from Congress. He entered the office in August of 1974 when Nixon resigned. He pardoned Nixon of all crimes that he may have committed. The Vietnam War ended in 1975, in which he evacuated nearly 500,000 Americans and South Vietnamese from Vietnam. He closed the war.
He was Georgia's governor for four years before he was elected the dark-horse president of 1976, promising to never lie to the people. He was politically successful at first, but was accused of being isolated with Georgians after a while. His greatest foreign policy achievement was when he peacefully resolved Egypt and Israel relations in 1978.
Governor of Maryland who ran as Vice President with Richard Nixon in 1968. He was known for his tough stands against dissidents and black militants. He strongly supported Nixon's desire to stay in Vietnam. He was forced to resign in October 1973 after having been accused of accepting bribes or "kickbacks" from Maryland contractors while governor and Vice President.
He was a former employee of the Defense Department and gave the New York Times the "Pentagon Paper" which was information on how the US government got involved in Vietnam. Very embarrassing to the government.
Nixon's national security adviser. He and his family escaped Hitler's anti-Jewish persecutions. Former Harvard professor. In 1969, he had begun meeting secretly on Nixon's behalf with North Vietnamese officials in Paris to negotiate an end to the war in Vietnam. He was also preparing the president's path to Beijing and Moscow.
He was the Chief Justice who discussed taboo issues like black civil rights. He made the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, which said that segregation in public schools was not equal. He conducted the investigation into Kennedy's assassination. Accepted the ruling of the lone gunman.
Roe v. Wade
this case was decided by the Supreme Court in 1973. It prohibited state legislatures from interfering with a woman's right to abortion. Norma McCarvey, a.k.a. Jane Roe, said in 1995 that she no longer believed in abortion rights.
Reynolds v. Sims (1964)
case in which it was ruled that the state legislatures (upper and lower houses) would be reapportioned according to population.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
case that said that all criminals were entitles to legal counsel even if they were too poor to afford it
Escobedo (1964) and Miranda (1966)
cases in which the Supreme Court ruled that the accused could remain silent
Engle v. Vitale (1962) and School District of Abginton Township v. Schempp (1963)
two cases the Supreme Court ruled that prayers and having the Bible in public schools was not required. First amendment rights, separation of church and state.
boosted the environmental movement with her book Silent Spring, which exposed the effects of pesticides.
Saturday Night Massacre (1973)
during the Watergate Scandal, when Archibald Cox was fired and the attorney general and deputy general resigned b/c they didn't want to fire Cox
symbolized return of conservatism; Republican president from 1981-1989 who initiated New Federalism. He ran on a campaign based on the common man and "populist" ideas. He served as governor of California from 1966-1974, and he participated in the McCarthy Communist scare. Iran released hostages on his Inauguration Day in 1980. While president, he developed Reagannomics, the trickle down effect of government incentives. He cut out many welfare and public works programs. He used the Strategic Defense Initiative to avoid conflict. His meetings with Gorbachev were the first steps to ending the Cold War.
a program to reduced the size of the federal government, deregulate business, cut government spending, and give more power to local governments
John Hinckley Jr.
a man who attempted to assassinate Reagan on March 6, 1981; it collapsed Reagan's lung and kept him hospitalized for 12 days
Reagan's Economic Program
Program to dismantle welfare state and reverse the political evolution of the past 50 years; Cut taxes severely (25% reduction over 3-year period)
Supply Side Economics
a theory coined by Andrew Mellon, called Reaganomics. It was a belief that the reduction of taxes would stimulate business, increase personal savings, and expand economic activity. This is turn, would increase the total taxable income
programs designed to encourage employers and colleges to hire or accept more minorities and women to even out the workforce, eliminate racism in the hiring process, and improve the lives of impoverished minorities in America. The programs were opposed by many as reverse discrimination against those who were not hired in an effort to keep the workplace ethnically diverse.
these people were a small influential group of thinkers who were supporters of Ronald Regan. They were acting against the 1960's liberalism. They took tough anti-Soviet positions in foreign policy. They championed free-market capitalism liberated from gov't restraints. They questioned liberal forms of welfare programs and affirmative action policies. They encouraged traditional values, individualism, and the centrality of the family.
Ronald Reagan dispatched a heavy- fire- power invasion force to this island, where a military coup had killed the prime minister and brought Marxists to power ----Americans captured the island quickly demonstrating Reagan's determination to assert the dominance of the US in the Caribbean
Strategic Defense Initiative
This was Regan's proposed high-tech, anti-nuclear missile, defense system. It was said to be scientifically impossible. It was nicknamed "Star Wars.
During the 1970's, white workers and students felt that they were being discriminated against by employers and admission offices because too much weight was put on race and ethnic background. In the court case, Bakke vs. California, the Supreme Court declared that preference in admissions to a college could not be given to a certain race, but racial factors could be taken into account in a school's overall admissions policy.
Sandra Day O'Connor
She was appointed by Reagan as a Supreme Court justice. She is a brilliant Stanford Law School graduate. She was sworn in on Sept.25, 1981. She was the first woman to ascend to the high bench in the Court's nearly 200 yr. History
An evangelical Christian group that was created to fight against the liberal ideas and politics that developed in the 60's and after. It is a "right-wing," conservative group.
Senator Edward Kennedy, brother of John F. Kennedy, was at a Batchelor party on an island. There were some young women there and there was some drinking and Kennedy ended up taking one of the young ladies off the island. But when they were crossing a bridge Kennedy's car went off the bridge. The young woman was killed. Kennedy's story was that he swam across a bay to get help but it was too late. There was much controversy over this incident about Kennedy's motives, such as if he was trying to kill the lady because she knew something and that Kennedy was already married.
He was the vice president of Carter and when he won the democratic nomination he was defeated by a landslide by Reagan. He was the first presidential candidate to have a woman vice president, Geraldine Ferraro.
In 1984 she was the first woman to appear on a major-party presidential ticket. She was a congresswoman running for Vice President with Walter Modale.
A black candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 1988 election who attempted to appeal to minorities, but eventually lost the nomination to Michael Dukakis
part of Reagan's "best and brightest cabinet"; sec of interior, little regard to environment (tried to hobble EPA and permit drilling oil in scenic places)
Poland's massive union which was clamped down on by the Soviets and 1981; they received $ from US
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
Court rules states could restrict access to abortion as long as the baby didn't place an "undue burden" on the woman
attempted to get democratic nomination in 1988 but dropped our b/c sexual misconduct charge. Jesse Jackson assembled a "rainbow coalition" in hopes of becoming president
Persian Gulf Crisis
1990, Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait for its oil fields (to get $ to pay debts accumulated during Iraq-Iran war; US supported him). UN placed embargoes on him and prepared to militarily punish him.
Operation Desert Storm ended w/ Hussein's surrender
Operation Desert Storm
land attack that lasted 4 days and ended w/ Hussein's surrender. America convinced this wasn't another Vietnam but we left Saddam in power
Clarence Thomas and Anita Hill
Bush wanted him to fill Seat left by Thurgood Marshall. Sexual harassment charges by Hill put him out of the running for sure.
banned congressional pay raises from taking effect until an election had seated a new session of Congress (proposed by James Madison in 1789)
In the 1980's new social issues came up as conservatives fought new-right activists. During this time, many Americans with different cultural backgrounds (like the Japanese, Chinese, etc.) began to seek rights like the African-Americans had in the 1960's. They often fought such things as unfair laws and segregation.
Immigration and Nationality Act
This act was signed by Johnson in 1965. It abolished the national origins system, this new act stated that no more than 20,000 people from any one country could immigrate over to America in a year
Equal Rights Amendment
In 1923, the National Women's Party campaigned for the equal rights of women in the work place. It was never passed.
Beginning in the 1920's and continuing to the present day, the U.S. has become a mass consumer economy with heavy machinery and automobile corporations. The "information age" developed, and technology has become and industry in itself. Communication to businessmen became much quicker and also made business transactions in different areas of the world much easier. The U.S. has become more and more involved with foreign trade as technology and communication has advanced.
Classrooms without Walls
The idea that supports having classrooms in which students are able to use a computer to do their studies without a teacher giving a lecture but there to be more of a mediator.
Family Leave Bill
In 1993, Congress passed this to mandate job protection for working fathers as well as mothers who needed to take time off work for family-related reasons.
The electronic revolution was in the 1970's. The information economy brought the large use of computers to America. The silicon chip, made in 1959, is a small one quarter of an inch square that can hold incredible amounts of information. This is called a microchip, and it helped to cause the electronic revolution.
Immigration and Nationality Act (1965)
(1965) This law made it easier for entire families to migrate and established "special categories" for political refugees. This act increased the amount of immigration.
United Farm Workers
Organizing Committee Headed by Cesar Chavez, it succeeded in helping to improve working conditions. It was organized to help mainly the Chicano population.
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986
Passed to decrease the number of illegal aliens in US; penalized employers of aliens and granted amnesty to aliens already in US
OJ Simpson Trial
This case gained world wide exposure because OJ was a star football player and was accused of murdering his wife. The main issue in this case that may have caused turmoil was the allowing cameras in the courtroom.
The principle that states the people should receive equal pay for work that is different form, but just as demanding as, other types of work. This idea has been applied to many discrimination cases including race, age, and gender discrimination.
New Immigration (80s-90s)
The New Immigrates in the 1980's and 1990's came from Asia, Latin America and mostly from Mexico. These new immigrates came for many of the same reasons that the old immigrates came such as growth in population, and to look for jobs. They mostly settled in the Southwest. During this time nearly a million people came to America each year.