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_____ are short term regulators of appetite, whereas ______ is a long-term regulator
Peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK)
______ yield about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, whereas ______ yield about 9 kcal/g
Proteins and carbohydrates ; fats
Carbohydrates function as structural components of other molecules including all of the following
Which of the following would you expect to be in a state of negative nitrogen balance
patients with muscle atrophy
_____ happens in the cytoplasm, whereas ______ happensin the mitochondrion
glycolysis; the citric acid (Krebs) cycle
Glycolysis and aerobic respiration collectively produce up to _____ ATP per glucose, whereas anaerobic fermentation produces______.
The inner membrane of a mitochondrion contains the protein ____, which harnesses the energy created by H+ flow to produce ATP by a process called _____
ATP synthase; the chemiosmotic mechanism
People on weight loss diets often lose weight quickly at first, but then more slowly. This is for all the following reasons except
the initial weight loss is mostly fat
Glycogenesis is stimulated by _____ and the glycogenolysis is stimulated by ________
insulin; glucagon and epinephrine
Only approximately _____ % of the energy in the glucose molecule winds up in ATP, the rest is lost as body heat
During periods of fasting, fat is said to have a protein-sparing effect because the body
does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first
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