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_____ are short term regulators of appetite, whereas ______ is a long-term regulator

Peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK)


carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and water

______ yield about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, whereas ______ yield about 9 kcal/g

Proteins and carbohydrates ; fats

Most carbohydrates in the body are found

muscular tissue

Carbohydrates function as structural components of other molecules including all of the following

amino acids

Lipid functions include all of the following except

forming skeletal muscle fibers

_____ constitutes the so-called " bad cholesterol"

low density lipoproteins

Which is the healthiest ratio?

high HDL : low LDL

HDL comes from

the liver

Proteins are associated with all these functions except

serving as cofactors for enzymes

Most protein in the body is found in

the muscular system

Which of the following would you expect to be in a state of negative nitrogen balance

patients with muscle atrophy

High-quality ______ proteins are those that provide all the essential amino acids


Vitamin ____ deficiency is the most common world-wide

A (retinol)

Mineral are _____ , whereas vitamins are ______

inorganic elements; organic compounds

The overall reaction for aerobic respiration is

C6H12O6 + 6O2 - 6CO2 + 6H2O

_____ is a product of glycolysis

Pyruvic acid

Which of these processes is essential for all of the rest to happen?


_____ happens in the cytoplasm, whereas ______ happensin the mitochondrion

glycolysis; the citric acid (Krebs) cycle


is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration

The synthesis of glucose from amino acids belongs to a metabolic process called


______ is a product of aerobic respiration

Carbon dioxide

Most of the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis is produced by

the citric acid cycle

Glycolysis and aerobic respiration collectively produce up to _____ ATP per glucose, whereas anaerobic fermentation produces______.


Which of the following compounds yields the most ATP per molecule?


The inner membrane of a mitochondrion contains the protein ____, which harnesses the energy created by H+ flow to produce ATP by a process called _____

ATP synthase; the chemiosmotic mechanism

Most of the body's fat is stored as


Fatty acids are catabolized by a process called

beta oxidation

Incomplete fatty acid oxidation produces _____, which might lead to _____

ketone bodies; acidosis

Oxidation of a typical fatty acid can yield

129 ATP

The highest rate of tissue protein turnover happens in the

intestinal mucosa

The first step in using amino acids as fuel is to ____ them


The liver performs all of the following functions except

secretion of digestive enzymes

What metabolic process produces ammonia?

deamination of glutamic acid

The liver does not

produce insulin and glucagon

During the postabsorptive state

glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis

During the absorptive state

gluconeogenesis is suppressed

______ is secreted during the postabsorptive state

Growth hormone

_____ does not raise total metabolic rate (TMR)


The basal metabolic rate should be measured when a person

first rises in the morning

People on weight loss diets often lose weight quickly at first, but then more slowly. This is for all the following reasons except

the initial weight loss is mostly fat

Fats should account for about_____ percent of the daily caloric intake


Glycogenesis is stimulated by _____ and the glycogenolysis is stimulated by ________

insulin; glucagon and epinephrine

Only approximately _____ % of the energy in the glucose molecule winds up in ATP, the rest is lost as body heat


During periods of fasting, fat is said to have a protein-sparing effect because the body

does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first

A nude body at a room temperature of 21 'C (70'F) loses most of its heat by


The loss of body heat by conduction can be enhanced by


The quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate heat loss is

cutaneous vasodilation

Shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of

ATP hydrolysis

Heat exhaustion results from

extreme electrolyte loss in the sweat

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