_____ are short term regulators of appetite, whereas ______ is a long-term regulator
Peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin (CCK)
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and water
______ yield about 4 kcal/g when completely oxidized, whereas ______ yield about 9 kcal/g
Proteins and carbohydrates ; fats
Most carbohydrates in the body are found
Carbohydrates function as structural components of other molecules including all of the following
Lipid functions include all of the following except
forming skeletal muscle fibers
_____ constitutes the so-called " bad cholesterol"
low density lipoproteins
Which is the healthiest ratio?
high HDL : low LDL
Proteins are associated with all these functions except
serving as cofactors for enzymes
Most protein in the body is found in
the muscular system
Which of the following would you expect to be in a state of negative nitrogen balance
patients with muscle atrophy
High-quality ______ proteins are those that provide all the essential amino acids
Vitamin ____ deficiency is the most common world-wide
Mineral are _____ , whereas vitamins are ______
inorganic elements; organic compounds
The overall reaction for aerobic respiration is
C6H12O6 + 6O2 - 6CO2 + 6H2O
_____ is a product of glycolysis
Which of these processes is essential for all of the rest to happen?
_____ happens in the cytoplasm, whereas ______ happensin the mitochondrion
glycolysis; the citric acid (Krebs) cycle
is the final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration
The synthesis of glucose from amino acids belongs to a metabolic process called
______ is a product of aerobic respiration
Most of the NADH contributing energy to ATP synthesis is produced by
the citric acid cycle
Glycolysis and aerobic respiration collectively produce up to _____ ATP per glucose, whereas anaerobic fermentation produces______.
Which of the following compounds yields the most ATP per molecule?
The inner membrane of a mitochondrion contains the protein ____, which harnesses the energy created by H+ flow to produce ATP by a process called _____
ATP synthase; the chemiosmotic mechanism
Most of the body's fat is stored as
Fatty acids are catabolized by a process called
Incomplete fatty acid oxidation produces _____, which might lead to _____
ketone bodies; acidosis
Oxidation of a typical fatty acid can yield
The highest rate of tissue protein turnover happens in the
The first step in using amino acids as fuel is to ____ them
The liver performs all of the following functions except
secretion of digestive enzymes
What metabolic process produces ammonia?
deamination of glutamic acid
The liver does not
produce insulin and glucagon
During the postabsorptive state
glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis
During the absorptive state
gluconeogenesis is suppressed
______ is secreted during the postabsorptive state
_____ does not raise total metabolic rate (TMR)
The basal metabolic rate should be measured when a person
first rises in the morning
People on weight loss diets often lose weight quickly at first, but then more slowly. This is for all the following reasons except
the initial weight loss is mostly fat
Fats should account for about_____ percent of the daily caloric intake
Glycogenesis is stimulated by _____ and the glycogenolysis is stimulated by ________
insulin; glucagon and epinephrine
Only approximately _____ % of the energy in the glucose molecule winds up in ATP, the rest is lost as body heat
During periods of fasting, fat is said to have a protein-sparing effect because the body
does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves first
A nude body at a room temperature of 21 'C (70'F) loses most of its heat by
The loss of body heat by conduction can be enhanced by
The quickest physiological mechanism for achieving moderate heat loss is
Shivering warms the body because it increases the rate of
Heat exhaustion results from
extreme electrolyte loss in the sweat
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