became president in 1920, promising a "return to normalcy"; not much interested in the work of presidency, enjoying the pomp and circumstance instead; had many affairs; presidency marked by corruption and scandal, but he died before his political career was significantly damaged; Weak-willed president whose easygoing ways opened the door to widespread corruption in his administration
A group of poker-playing, men that were friends of President Warren Harding. Harding appointed them to offices and they used their power to gain money for themselves. They were involved in scandals that ruined Harding's reputation even though he wasn't involved.
Charles Evans Hughes
Secretary of State under Harding, Proposed a 10-year moratorium on the construction of major new warships at the Washington Conference; Strong-minded leader of Harding's cabinet and initiator of major naval agreements
Secretary of State who reduced taxes to encourage business, but this action shifted the tax burden from the wealthy to the middle class
The Secretary of the Interior who accepted bribes from an oil company and started the Teapot Dome Scandal.
attorney general who fully shared Harding's big business bias, clamped on the strikers one of the most sweeping injunctions (Railway Labor Board), very corrupt
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
Supreme Court case that invalidated MULLER V. OREGON declaring that since women now had the vote, they were equal to men and undeserving of special protection, Supreme Court ruling that removed workplace protection and invalidated a minimum wage for women
Interstate Commerce Commission
government agency organized to oversee railroad commerce, however came to be dominated by men sympathetic to the RR owners
War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries., disappeared vverryyyy quickly after the war
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act
the 1920 act of Congress in which the railroads were returned to private ownership with a pledge of government help to make them profitable
1920; this act authorized the shipping board, which controlled about 1500 vessels, to dispose of much of the hastily built wartime fleet at bargain-basement prices
controlled about fifteen hundred vessels ; used to dispose of much of the wartime fleet at bargain-basement prices
La Follette Seaman's Act
Wilson - 1915 required good treatment of America's sailors, but it sent merchant freight rates soaring as a result of the cost to maintain sailor health.
Railway Labor Board
the 1920's successor to the wartime labor boards that ordered 12% wage cuts to certain workers in 1922 provoking a two-month strike, Attorney General Daugherty clamped injunctions on strikers (unions wilted and membership dropped to 30%)
Federal bureau created in 1921 to provide hospitals and services to disabled veterans
WWI veterans' group that promoted patriotism and economic benefits for former servicemen
demanded by former servicemen to make up for the wages they had lost when they turned in their factory overalls for the war
Adjusted compensation Act
it gave every WW1 veteran a paid up insurance policy, vetoed by both Harding and Coolidge, but overridden by Congress
what actually ended the war with Germany many years later considering US didn't sign the Treaty of Versailles
Anglo Japanese alliance
An agreement for an initial period of five years, in which the UK and Japan agreed to remain neutral if either was involved in a war with a third power. If either was involved in a war with two other countries, then the other would assist, made US nervous
1921-1922. invitations went to all the major naval powers, except RUSSIA. proposed that the scaled down navies of America and Britain should enjoy party in battleships and aircraft carriers, Secretary Hughes laid out a plan for declaring a ten-year hiatus, held in DC
Hughes proposed that scaled-down navies of America and Britain should enjoy equality in the number of battleships and aircraft carriers, with Japan on the small end (Rolls-Royce, Rolls-Royce, Ford)
Five Power Naval Treaty
it was discussed in the Washington Conference, it put limitations on weapons and military in US, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy. Agreement that reduced naval strength and established a ratio of warships among the major shipping powers
1921. Treaty between the US, Great Britain, France, and Japan to maintain the status quo in the South Pacific, that no countries could seek further territorial gain.
1922. Treaty that was essentially a reinvention of the Open Door Policy. All members to allow equal and fair trading rights with China (the sick man of the Far East). Signed by (9) US, Japan, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal.
Kellogg-Briand Pact, Pact of Paris
sec state Kellogg, all nations that signed would no longer use war as offensive means. Toothless international agreement of 1928 that pledged nations to outlaw war
Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law
tariff law that reversed Democratic policies and established the high-tariff American economic isolationism of the 1920s, Congress passed this to raise the tariff from 27% to 39% because businessmen wanted to keep the home markets to themselves, however didn't realize the tariff wall worked both ways, Americans couldn't sell to Europe (build surplus->deflation), and Europe couldn't recovery from war by selling to America
head of the Veterans Bureau, was caught stealing $200 million from the government, chiefly in connection with the building of veterans' hospitals.
organizations representing the interests of firms and professionals in the same general field
Albert B. Fall leased oil rich land in Teapot Dome, WYOMING, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. Doheny, but not until Fall had received a "loan" of $100,000 form Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair. The scandal greatly affected the public view of the government in a negative way.
President who followed Harding, who during this period practiced a laissez faire policy toward business (famous cartoon Cash Register Chorus, businesses have a friend in Coolidge) Tight-lipped Vermonter who promoted frugality and pro-business policies during his presidency
gasoline engine tractor
STEEL MULE, made a revolution on American farms, took place of plodding after the horse-drawn plow with high footed gait
A group of both Democratic and Republican members of Congress from the farming states of the Middle West that pressures the federal government to adopt policies favorable to farmers.
Farm proposal of the 1920s, passed by Congress but vetoed by president Coolidge, that provided for the federal government to buy farm surpluses and sell them abroad
old Wisconsin liberal, progressive candidate in 1924; Leader of a liberal third-party (Progressive Party) insurgency who attracted little support outside the farm belt and his home state
Democratic convention nominee in 1924 against Coolidge. He was a wealthy lawyer connected with J.P. Morgan and Company. Coolidge easily defeated him, Weak, compromise Democratic candidate in 1924
coal rich land first taken by France for war reparations for WWI, then it was taken beck by Germany
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S. basically a merry go round, America never really recieved payments, just caused hatred of America from other European powers as a selfish power; American-sponsored arrangement for rescheduling German reparations payments that only temporarily eased the international debt tangle of the 1920s
Secretary of commerce under Harding whose reputation for economic genius became a casualty of the Great Depression, Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
He ran for president in the 1928 election for the Democrat Party. He was known for his drinking and he lost the election to Herbert Hoover. Prohibition was one of the issues of the campaign. He was the first Roman Catholic to run for president, and it was during a time many people were prejudice toward Catholics. The "Happy Warrior" who attracted votes in the cities but lost them in the South (because he was Catholic and against prohibition)
economy that relies on a centralized government to control all or most factors of production and to make all or most production and allocation decisions
Term applied to the one-party (Democrat) system of the South following the Civil War. For 100 years after the Civil War, the South voted Democrat in every presidential election.
The belief that all individuals, or nearly all individuals, can succeed on their own and that government help for people should be minimal. Popularly said by Hertbert Hoover.
Agricultural Marketing Act
Established the first major government program to help farmers maintain crop prices with a federally sponsored Farm Board that would make loans to national marking cooperatives or set up corporations to buy surpluses and raise prices. This act failed to help American farmers.
Federal Farm Board
Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought; flood; or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.
Grain Stabilization Corporation
also for COTTON, Created by the Federal Farm Board in 1930 in an attempt to raise the price of wheat by purchasing excess wheat
Sky-high tariff bill of 1930 that deepened the depression and caused international financial chaos; the highest import tax in history, Americans thought to protect own markets Europeans, however, did the same thus, limiting all trade.
October 29th, 1929: the day when prices in the stock market took a steep dive, plunging over $10 million dollars THE GREAT CRASH
THREADBARE THIRTIES, a severe, world wide economic crisis which lasted from the end of 1929 to the outbreak of World War II. *****The stock market crash DID NOT cause the depression; the depression caused the crash.everyone blamed Hoover even tho it was the policies before him.
shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards. also hoover blankets (newspapers)
a dam built in the 1930s, with funding from the federal government, to control the Colorado River.
projects such as highways, parks, and libraries built with public funds for public use, intended to stimulate job growth
Muscle Shoals Bill
Bills that would allocate funds to dam the Tennessee River and provide employment, is vetoed by Hoover; public works proposal was vetoed by President hoover because it involved the government production of electricity for sale to citizens
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
RFC was an independant agency of the United States government. It granted over 2 billion dollars to the local and state governments. Hoover-sponsored federal agency that provided loans to hard-pressed banks and businesses after 1932
Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act
1932 outlawed "yellow-dog" contracts & forbade federal courts to issue injunctions to restrict strikes, boycotts, peaceful picketting
Bonus Expeditionary Force
aka the BONUS ARMY thousands of WWI veterans, who insisted on immediate payment of their bonus certificates, they marched on Washington in 1932, violence ensured when President Hoover ordered their ten villages cleared (BEF play on words with the AEF)
called in to break up the Bonus Army in DC, used too much force, later become important military leader
Battle of Anacostia Flats
The name given to the time when Herbert Hoover ordered federal troops to forcibly remove the World War I veteran Bonus Army who marched into Washington D.C. and demanded early payment of a bonus
people blamed him for the Depression - mocked him - "Hoovervilles" were shanty towns with stacks of scrap material
Hoover's secretary of state, who sought sanctions against Japan for its aggression in Manchuria
1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria
Independent but less developed nations controlled by private business interests rather than by other governments
Good Neighbor policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
one of the main causes of the Great Depression, too many manufactured as well as farm products
companies try to decrease production, as a result they ____ their workers, leads to many more problems
organizations that originally set up relief such as soup kitchens, etc., government did nothing, reason why Hoover blamed for depression
Another jab at the president to describe the penniless state of America; this nickname was for inside out pockets that symbolized "flying the flag" of his presidency.
country was handing out dole payments to its people, president didn't want this to happen, believed more in self-help
a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition, many people worried this is what America would fall into as many other countries had already because of the depression
Southern Democrats who turned against their party's "wet" Catholic nominee and voted for the Republican in 1928